Nigel Harwood


Reading List

[N.B. A good place to start is Ian McGrath's book, Materials Evlauation and Design for Language Teaching, and Brian Tomlinson's edited collections, Materials Development in Language Teaching and Developing Materials for Language Teaching]


Those articles marked with [XD Collection] are available as photocopies. Ask at the issue desk.


Allwright RL (1981) What do we want teaching materials for? ELT Journal 36(1): 5-18.

Alptekin C (1993) Target language culture in EFL materials. ELT Journal 47(2): 136-143.

Alptekin C & Alptekin M (1984) The question of culture: EFL teaching in non-English-speaking countries. ELT Journal 38(1): 14-20.

Alred GJ & Thelen EA (1993) Are textbooks contributions to scholarship? College Composition and Communication 44(4): 466-477. [XD Collection]

Apple MW (1984) The political economy of text publishing. Educational Theory 34(4): 307-319. [XD Collection]

Apple MW & Christian-Smith LK (1991) The politics of the textbook. In MW Apple and LK Christian-Smith (eds.), The Politics of the Textbook. London: Routledge, pp.1-21.

Apple MW & Jungck S (1990) "You don't have to be a teacher to teach this unit": teaching, technology, and gender in the classroom. American Educational Research Journal 27(2): 227-251. [XD Collection]

Bargiela-Chiappini C & Nickerson CR (1999) Writing Business: Genres, Media, and Discourses. Harlow: Longman.

Bell J & Gower R (1998) Writing course materials for the world: A great compromise. In B Tomlinson (ed) Materials Development In Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Block D (1991) Some thoughts on DIY materials design. ELT Journal 45(3): 211-217.

Brumfit C (1979) Seven last slogans. Modern English Teacher 7(1): 30-31.

Byrd P (ed.) (1995) Material Writer's Guide. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Campbell C & Kryszewska H (1992) Learner-Based Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chambers F (1997) Seeking consensus in coursebook evaluation. ELT Journal 51(1): 29-35.

Clarke DF (1989) Communicative theory and its influence on materials production. Language Teaching 22(2): 73-86.

Clarke DF (1989) Materials adaptation: Why leave it all to the teacher? ELT Journal 43(2): 133-141.

Coleman H (1985) Evaluating teachers' guides: do teachers' guides guide teachers? In J Alderson (ed.), Evaluation. Lancaster Practical Papers in English Language Education vol 6. Oxford: Pergamon, pp.83-96.

Cunningsworth A (1984) Evaluating and Selecting EFL Materials. Oxford: Heinemann.

Cunningsworth A (1995) Choosing Your Coursebook. Oxford: Heinemann.

Cunningsworth A & Kusel P (1991) Evaluating teachers’ guides. ELT Journal 45(2): 128-139.

Dendrinos B (1992) The EFL Textbook and Ideology. Athens: NC Grivas Publications.

Freebairn I (2000) The coursebook—future continuous or past? English Teaching Professional 15 (September): 3-5. [XD Collection]

Gray J (2000) The ELT coursebook as cultural artefact: how teachers censor and adapt. ELT Journal 54(3): 274-283.

Gray J (2002) The global coursebook in English Language Teaching. In D Block & D Cameron (eds.), Globalization and language teaching. London: Routledge, pp.151-167.

Harmer J (2001) Coursebooks: a human, cultural and linguistic disaster? Modern English Teacher 10(3): 5-10.

Harwood N (2000) The sample approach: Teaching writing with Cambridge examination classes. CRILE Working Papers 52, Lancaster University. Available to download at

Harwood N (in preparation) What do we want EAP teaching materials for?

Harwood N & Hadley G (in press) Demystifying institutional practices: critical pragmatism and the teaching of academic writing. English for Specific Purposes. Available to download at

Hewings M & Nickerson CR (1999) Business English: Research into Practice. Harlow: Longman.

Holmes J (1988) Doubt and certainty in ESL textbooks. Applied Linguistics 9(1): 21-44.

Hutchinson EG (1996) What do teachers and learners actually do with textbooks? Teacher and learner use of a fisheries-based ELT textbook in the Philippines. Unpublished PhD thesis, Lancaster University.

Hutchinson T & Torres E (1994) The textbook as agent of change. ELT Journal 48(4): 315-328.

Hyland K (1994) Hedging in academic writing and EAP coursebooks. English for Specific Purposes 13(3): 239-256.

Jones GM (1990) ESP textbooks: do they really exist? English for Specific Purposes 9: 89-93.

Kuo C-H (1993) Problematic issues is EST materials development. English for Specific Purposes 12: 171-181.

Littlejohn A (1992) Why are English language teaching materials the way they are? Unpublished PhD Thesis, Lancaster University.

Littlejohn A (1995) Correspondence. ELT Journal 49(2): 197-8.

Littlejohn A and Windeatt S (1989) Beyond language learning: Perspectives on materials design. In RK Johnson (ed) The Second Language Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Luke A (1988) Literacy, Textbooks and Ideology: Postwar Literacy Instruction and the Mythology of Dick and Jane. London: The Falmer Press.

Lum YL & Brown R (1994) Guidelines for the production of in-house self-access materials. ELT Journal 48(2): 150-155.

McDonough J & Shaw C (2003) Materials and Methods in ELT (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

McEnery T & Kifle NA (2002) Epistemic modality in argumentative essays of second-language writers. In J Flowerdew (ed.) Academic Discourse. Harlow: Longman, pp.182-195.

McGrath I (2002) Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Nelson M (2000) A corpus-based study of business English and business English teaching materials. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Manchester. [Available at]

Nunan D (1988) Principles for designing language teaching materials. Guidelines 10(2): 1-24.

Nunan D (1989) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

O’Neill R (1982) Why use textbooks? ELT Journal 36(2): 104-111.

O'Neill R (1993) Are textbooks symptoms of a disease? Practical English Teaching 14(1): 11-13. [XD Collection]

Paltridge B (2002) Thesis and dissertation writing: an examination of published advice and actual practice. English for Specific Purposes 21: 125-143.

Porreca K (1984) Sexism in current ESL textbooks. TESOL Quarterly 18(4): 705-724.

Richards JC (1993) Beyond the text book: the role of commercial materials in language teaching. RELC Journal 24(1): 1-14. [XD Collection]

Richards JC (1998) Textbooks: help or hindrance in teaching? In JC Richards, Beyond Training: Perspectives on Language Teacher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.125-140.

Rossner R (1988) Materials for communicative teaching and learning. In C Brumfit (ed.), Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.140-163.

Shannon P (1987) Commercial reading materials, a technological ideology, and the deskilling of teachers. The Elementary School Journal 87(3): 307-329. [XD Collection]

Sheldon LE (1988) Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. ELT Journal 42(4): 237-246.

Sheldon LE (ed) (1987) ELT Textbooks and Materials: Problems In Evaluation and Development. ELT Document 126. London: Modern English Publications and The British Council.

Sinclair B & Ellis G (1992) Survey review: learner training in EFL course books. ELT Journal 46(2): 209-225.

Swales JM (1980) ESP: the textbook problem. The ESP Journal 1(1): 11-23.

Swales JM (1995) The role of the textbook in EAP writing research. English for Specific Purposes 14(1): 3-18.

Swales JM (2002) Integrated and fragmented worlds: EAP materials and corpus linguistics. In J Flowerdew (ed.), Academic Discourse. Harlow: Longman, pp.150-164.

Swales JM & Feak CB (1994) Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Swales JM & Feak CB (2000) English in Today's Research World: A Writing Guide. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Swales JM et al (2001) Between critique and accommodation: reflections on an EAP course for Masters of Architecture students. English for Specific Purposes 20: 439-458.

Thornbury S & Meddings L (2001) Coursebooks: the roaring in the chimney. Modern English Teacher 10(3): 11-13.

Tomlinson B (ed) (1998) Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tomlinson B (ed) (2002) Developing Materials for Language Teaching. London: Continuum.

Torres E (1993) A fish's story: insights from investigating use of a fisheries-based ESP textbook in classrooms. In J Edge & K Richards (eds.), Teachers Develop Teachers Research. Oxford: Heinemann, pp.173-178.

Tribble C & Jones G (1990) Concordances in the Classroom. Harlow: Longman.

Warschauer M & Kern R (2000) Network-Based Language Teaching: Concepts and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williams M (1988) Language taught for meetings and language used in meetings: is there anything in common? Applied Linguistics 9(1): 45-58.

Windeatt S et al (2000) The Internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



In addition, there are numerous articles in journals like ELT Journal and English for Specific Purposes which include samples of materials which should be referred to.