Materials © for/by Peter L. Patrick. May contain copyright material used for educational purposes. Please respect copyright.

A Bibliography of works on

African American English

by Peter L. Patrick, Univ.of Essex

[other credits]

 

This bibliography was first developed for a graduate seminar I taught in fall 1997 at Georgetown University. (I think it may have been the first major bibliography of AAE to have been posted on the web.) I continue to teach and be interested in the area, so I try to keep it up-to-date, but often fall behind. A number of other pages and organizations have linked to this and found it useful; eg, the Center for Applied Linguistics used it as part of the basis for a resource on AAE, a comprehensive collection of materials that they developed. If you want to see something listed below, email me as patrickp at essex.ac.uk. My current teaching on the topic at the University of Essex can usually be found via my coursepage.

Note to Students doing Research Papers:

Many people write me with questions about African American English; when I have time away from my own students, I try to respond. But it’s unlikely that I will tell you more about the works listed here -- your best bet is to read them yourself. After all, that’s why I developed this page! My answer, almost every time, is to point you back to the works listed below. Also, I do not have recordings, transcripts and texts that I can send you – or rather, what I do have you will find online off of my homepage. That said, I am happy to try to answer good questions, or refer you to my colleagues who can do a better job.

What’s Here and What’s Not

There is no end to bibliographies, so I have not tried to include everything I know about. The emphasis here is on scholarly works, with a (socio)linguistic orientation; popular works, or works from other disciplines, may appear if I know about them, and if I think they’re well done & relevant.

Works included here all focus directly on AAE, with very few exceptions (eg, Jane Hill’s entries on racism in American English are here because they directly influence recent work on AAE, cf. Ronkin & Karn 1999). Works on Atlantic creoles with only a passing mention of AAE have been entirely left out, despite their evident relation (but eg, Holm 1988 has a sizable section on AAE). Some works on Gullah are included (eg Montgomery 1993) because it is arguably both a Creole and African American English, at least historically. On the other hand, I haven’t yet got around to systematically sorting thru the literature on Louisiana Creole/Cajun speech, which also includes an indigenous Creole with close links to AAE (though some is here).

There’s a separate, growing list (>50 entries) of references to British Black English (also known as British Afro-Caribbean English, British Creole, and other names) -- a variety of English genetically more closely related to Jamaican Creole than to AAE as spoken in the US).

I have recently added a separate mini-bibliography (>50) of works on Attitudes to African American English – all of them are in this main list too, but on the mini-bib I have included many abstracts.

On educational matters, please see the excellent recent topic-coded bibliography on "African American English and other vernaculars in Education" by J Rickford, J Sweetland & A Rickford (2004) [abstract], listed below. The focus is different from this one, being defined by vernacular education – in particular, it includes much material on Creoles and other languages – but many items (perhaps hundreds) overlap this page.

A number of works named below can also be accessed online at ERIC, the indispensable Educational Resources Information Center, . I ahven't figured out how big the overlap in listings is, but I sometimes highlight the link, or at least give the ERIC reference number.

Where author name and publication year appear highlighted in green at the end of an entry, clicking on it will bring up a summary of the work or part thereof. Works followed by [brief] are already 1-3 page summary items. For more info see Summaries; for more bibliographies see below.

Co-authored work is alphabetized under the second author's family name (e.g., Wolfram & Beckett 2000 comes before Wolfram, Thomas & Green 2000). Beyond that, they are arranged by date (e.g., Wolfram, Thomas & Green 2000 comes before Wolfram & Thomas 2002).

 

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y  Z

A

Abrahams, Roger D. 1962. Playing the dozens. Journal of American Folklore 75: 209-218.

Abrahams, Roger D. 1970. Deep down in the jungle. Chicago: Aldine.

Abrahams, Roger D. 1970. Rapping and capping: Black talk as an art. New York: Basic Books.

Abrahams, Roger D. 1974. Black talking on the streets. In Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, eds. Richard Bauman and Joel Sherzer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 240-62.

Abrahams, Roger D. 1975. Negotiating respect: Patterns of presentation among Black women. In Women and Folklore, ed. Claire Farrer. University of Texas Press.

Abrahams, Roger D. 1976. Talking Black. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Adger, Carolyn. 1986. When difference does not conflict: Successful arguments between Black and Vietnamese classmates. Text 6(2): 223-237.

Adger, Carolyn, et al. 1993. Confronting dialect minority issues in special education: Reactive and proactive perspectives. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. [Adger 1993]

Adger, Carolyn Temple, Donna Christian, and Orlando Taylor, eds. 1999. Making the connection: Language and academic achievement among African American students. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, and McHenry, Illinois: Delta Systems Co., Inc.

Aggarwal,  Kailash S. 1998. Exploring American ideologies of language. CIEFL Bulletin (New series) 9(2): 1-22. [Aggarwal 1998]

Akinnaso, F. Niyi, & Cheryl Seabrook Ajirotutu. 1982. Performance and ethnic style in job interviews. In Language and social identity, ed. by John Gumperz, 119-144. [Akinnaso 1982]

Alim, H. Samy. 2002. Street-conscious copula variation in the Hip-Hop Nation. American Speech 77(3): 288-304.

Alim, H. Samy. 2004. You know my steez: An ethnographic and sociolinguistic study of styleshifting in a Black American speech community. Publication of the American Dialect Society (PADS 89). Durham NC: Duke University Press.

Alim, H. Samy. 2006. Roc the mic right: The language of hip hop culture. Routledge.

Allen, Harold B. and Gary N. Underwood, eds. 1971. Readings in American dialectology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1980. Comparative Afro-American: An historical-comparative study of English-based Afro-American dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor: Karoma.

Anderson, Bridget L. 2002. Dialect leveling and /ai/ monophthongization among African American Detroiters. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(1): 86-98.

Anderson, Carolyn, Marlene Fine, and Fern Johnson. 1983. Black talk on television: A constructivist approach to viewers’ perception of BEV in Roots II. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 4(2-3):181-195.

Anshen, Frank. 1969. Speech variation among Negroes in a small Southern community. Ph.D. dissertation. New York University.

Asante, Molefi Kete. 1975. African and African American communication continuities. Buffalo NY: Council on International Studies.

Asante, Molefi Kete. 1990. African elements in African-American English. Africanisms in American culture, ed. Joseph E. Holloway, 19-33. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. [Asante 1990]

Ash, Sharon, & John Myhill. 1986. Linguistic correlates of inter-ethnic contact. David Sankoff, ed., Diversity and diachrony. John Benjamins: Amsterdam & Philadelphia, 33-44.

 ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPRSTVWYZ

B

Bailey, Benjamin. 1997. Communication of respect in interethnic service encounters. Language in Society 26(3): 327-356.

Bailey, Benjamin. 2000. Language and negotiation of ethnic/racial identity among Dominican Americans. Language in Society 29(4): 555-582.

Bailey, Beryl L. 1965. Toward a new perspective on American Negro dialectology. American Speech 11:171-77.

Bailey, Guy. 1987. Are Black and White vernaculars diverging? Papers from the NWAV-XIV panel discussion. American Speech 62 (1):32-40.

Bailey, Guy. 1990. The idea of Black English. SECOL Review 14 (Spring 1990): 1-24.

Bailey, Guy. 1993. A perspective on African-American English. In American Dialect Research, ed. Dennis Preston. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 287-318.

Bailey, Guy. 1996. Review of R. Butters (1989), The death of Black English. American Speech 71(1): 98-102.

Bailey, Guy. 1997. When did Southern American English begin? In Edgar W. Schneider, ed., Englishes Around the World. Vol. 1: General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 255-275.

Bailey, Guy, co-editor with S Mufwene, J Rickford and J Baugh. 1998. African-American English: Structure, history, and use. New York: Routledge.

Bailey, Guy. 2001. The relationship between African American Vernacular English and White vernaculars in the American South: A sociocultural history and some phonological evidence. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 53-92.

Bailey, Guy, and Marvin Bassett. 1986. Invariant be in the Lower South. In Montgomery, Michael B. & Guy Bailey, eds. Language variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 158-179.

Bailey, Guy, and Natalie Maynor. 1985a. The present tense of be in Southern Black folk speech. American Speech 60: 195-213.

Bailey, Guy, and Natalie Maynor. 1987. Decreolization? Language in Society 16: 449-73.

Bailey, Guy, and Natalie Maynor. 1987. The verbal -s inflection in Earlier Black English. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics. Atlanta, GA, 5 November.

Bailey, Guy, and Natalie Maynor. 1989. The divergence controversy. American Speech 64: 12-39. [Bailey & Maynor 1989]

Bailey, Guy, Natalie Maynor, and Patricia Cukor-Avila, eds. 1991. The emergence of Black English: Texts and commentary. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishers. [Bailey et al. 1991]

Bailey, Guy, and Cynthia Schnebly. 1988. Auxiliary deletion in the Black English vernacular. Language change and contact: Proceedings of the 16th annual conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation, eds. Kathleen Ferrara et al. Austin: University of Texas, Dept. of Linguistics, 34-41.

Bailey, Guy, and Erik Thomas. 1998. Some aspects of African-American vernacular English phonology. In Mufwene, Rickford, Bailey & Baugh, eds., African American English: Structure, history and use: 85-109. New York: Routledge.

Bailey, Richard W. 1983. Education and the law: The King case in Ann Arbor. In Black English: Educational Equity and the Law, ed by John Chambers, Jr. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Karoma Publishers, 1-28.

Baird, Scott James. 1969. Employment interview speech: A social dialect study in Austin, Texas. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. UMI no. AAT 6915781.

Ball, Arnetha F. 1991. Organizational patterns in the oral and written expository language of african-American adolescents: Choice vs. ability. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Ball, Arnetha F., and Lardner, Ted. 1997. Dispositions toward language: Teacher constructs of knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English case. College Composition and Communication 48(4): 469-485. [Ball & Lardner 1997]

Baran, Jane & Harry Seymour. 1976. “The influence of three phonological rules of Black English on the discrimination of minimal word pairs.” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 129:467-474.

Baratz, Joan C. 1969. A bi-dialectal task for determining language proficiency in economically disadvantaged Negro children. Child Development 40(3).

Baratz, Joan C. 1969. Language and cognitive assessment of Negro children: Assumptions and research needs. ASHA 11(3).

Baratz, Joan C. and Roger Shuy, eds. 1969. Teaching Black children to read. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Barnes, Sandra L. 1998. Ebonics and public awareness: Who knows? Who cares? Journal of Black Studies 29(1): 17-33. [Barnes 1998]

Baugh, John. 1979. Linguistic style-shifting in Black English. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Pennsylvania.

Baugh, John. 1980. A re-examination of the Black English copula. In Locating language in time and space, ed. William Labov. New York: Academic, 83-106.

Baugh, John. 1983. Black street speech: Its history, structure, and survival. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Baugh, John. 1984. Steady: Progressive aspect in Black English Vernacular.American Speech 59: 1-12.

Baugh, John. 1987. The situational dimension of linguistic power. Language Arts 64:234-240.

Baugh, John. 1991. The politicization of changing terms of self-reference among American Slave Descendants. American Speech 66(2): 133-46. [Baugh 1991]

Baugh, John. 1992. Hypocorrection: Mistakes in production of vernacular African American English as a second dialect. Language Communication 12 (3/4):317-26.

Baugh, John. 1995. The law, linguistics, and education: Educational reform for African American language minority students. Linguistics and Education.

Baugh, John, co-editor with GR Guy, C Feagin, D Schiffrin. 1995. Towards a social science of language: Papers in honor of William Labov. Vol. I: Variation and change in language and society contains a section on African-American varieties of English with papers by Baugh, D Bickerton, R Fasold & Y Nakano, P Patrick and J Rickford. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Baugh, John. 1996. Perceptions within a variable paradigm: Black and White detection based on speech. In Edgar Schneider, ed., Focus on the USA (Varieties of English around the World, General Series 16). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Baugh, John, co-editor with S Mufwene, J Rickford and G Bailey. 1998. African-American English: Structure, history, and use. New York: Routledge.

Baugh, John. 1998. Linguistics, education and the law: Educational reform for African-American language minority students. In Mufwene et al, eds., African American English: Structure, history and use: 282-301. New York: Routledge.

Baugh, John. 1999. Out of the mouths of slaves: African American Language and educational malpractice. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN: 0292708734.

Cf. Purnell, Idsardi & Baugh 1999, below

Baugh, John. 2000. Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0195120469.

Baugh, John. 2000. Racial identification by speech. American Speech 75(4):362-364. [brief]

Baugh, John. 2001. Applying linguistic knowledge of African American English to help students learn and teachers teach. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 319-330.

Baugh, John. 2004. Standard English and Academic English (dialect) learners in the African Diaspora. Journal of English Linguistics 32(3): 197-209. [Baugh 2004]

Beckford Wassink, Alicia & Anne Curzan. 2004. Addressing ideologies around African American English. Journal of English Linguistics 32(3): 171-185. [Beckford Wassink & Curzan 2004]

Bender, Emily. 2000. Syntactic variation and linguistic competence: The case of AAVE copula absence. PhD diss., Stanford University.

Bereiter, Carl, & Siegfired Engelmann. 1966. Teaching disadvantaged children in the pre-school. Engelwood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bernstein, Cynthia. 1991. Appendix. Two letters written by former slaves (transcribed). In Bailey et al. 1991:327-329. [brief]

Bernstein, Cynthia, Thomas Nunnally & Robin Sabino, eds. 1997. Language variety in the South revisited. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Berthele, Raphael. 2000. Translating African American Vernacular English into German: The problem of ‘Jim’ in Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(4): 588-613.

Bins, Carolyn Fitchett. 1972. Toward an ethnography of contemporary African American oral poetry. In William K Riley & David M Smith, eds., Languages and Linguistics Working Papers, no. 5: Sociolinguistics, 76-94. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Blake, Renée. 1997. Defining the envelope of linguistic variation: The case of ‘don’t-count’ forms in the copula analysis of African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 9:55-80.

Blake, Renée, & Cecilia Cutler. 2003. AAE and variation in teachers’ attitudes: A question of school philosophy? Linguistics and Education 14(2): 163-194. [Blake & Cutler 2003]

Botan, Carl & Geneva Smitherman. 1991. Black English in the integrated workplace. Journal of Black Studies 22(2): 168-85.

Botkin, Bruce A., ed. 1989 [1945]. Lay my burden down: A folk history of slavery. NY: Delta Books. [Botkin 1989] [A source of spoken texts and perspectives rather than analyses of language]

Bouchard-Ryan, Ellen. 1969. A psycholinguistic attitude study. Studies in Language and Language Behavior 8: 437-450. [Bouchard-Ryan 1969]

Bowie, R. L, and C. L. Bond. 1994. Influencing teachers’ attitudes towards Black English: Are we making a difference? Journal of Teacher Education 45: 112-118. [Bowie & Bond 1994]

Brewer, Jeutonne P. 1977. Subject concord of be in Early Black English. In Papers in Linguistic Variation: SAMLA-ADS, eds. David L. Shores & Carole P. Hines. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 161-75.

Brewer, Jeutonne P. 1979. Nonagreeing am and invariant be in Early Black English. The SECOL Bulletin 3: 81-100.

Brewer, Jeutonne P. 1986. Durative marker or hypercorrection? The case of -s in the WPA slave narratives. M. Montgomery and G. Bailey, eds., 131-48.

Brewer, Jeutonne P. 1991. Songs, sermons and life-stories: The legacy of the Ex-Slave recordings. In Bailey et al. 1991: 155-72.

Brooks, Charlotte K., ed. 1985. Tapping Potential: English and Language Arts for the Black Learner. Urbana IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Brown, H. Rap. 1972. Street talk. In T. Kochman, ed., 205-207. [brief]

Bucholtz, Mary. 1995. From mulatta to mestiza: Passing and the linguistic reshaping of ethnic identity. Kira Hall & Mary Bucholtz, eds., Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self. New York: Routledge, 351-73.

Bucholtz, Mary. 1996. Marking black: The construction of white identities through African American Vernacular English. Paper presented to Georgetown Linguistic Society, Washington DC, October 1996.

Bucholtz, Mary. 1996. Fluency and fluidity in white teenagers’ use of African American Vernacular English. Paper presented to American Anthropological Association meeting, November 1996.

Bucholtz, Mary. 1997. Borrowed Blackness: African American Vernacular English and European American youth identities. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California at Berkeley.

Bucholtz, Mary. 1999. ‘You da man’: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 443-460. [Special issue on 'Styling the Other', ed. Ben Rampton]

Buck, J. 1968. The effects of Negro and white dialectal variations upon attitudes of college students. Speech Monographs 35: 181-186.

Burling, Robbins. 1973. English in Black and White. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Burnett, Myra N., Randi Burlew and Glenetta Hudson. 1997. Embracing the Black English Vernacular: Response to Koch and Gross. Journal of Black Psychology 23(3): 233-237. [Burnett, Burlew & Hudson 1997]

Butters, Ronald R. 1973. Black English {-Z}: Some theoretical implications. American Speech 48: 37-45.

Butters, Ronald R. 1984. When is English ‘Black English Vernacular’? Journal of English Linguistics 17(1):29-36.

Butters, Ronald R. 1986. Linguistic convergence in a North Carolina community. In Keith M. Denning, Sharon Inkelas, Faye C. McNair-Knox and John R. Rickford, eds., Variation in language: NWAV-XV at Stanford: 52-60. Stanford CA: Stanford Univ. Linguistics Dept.

Butters, Ronald R. 1989. The death of Black English: Divergence and convergence in Black and White vernaculars. Bamberger Beiträge zur englischen Sprachswissenschaft 25. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Butters, Ronald R. 2000. ‘What is about to take place is a murder’: Construing the racist subtext in a small-town Virginia courtroom. In Joy Kreeft Peyton, Peg Griffin, Walt Wolfram, and Ralph Fasold, eds., Lnguage in action: New studies of language in society: 362-388. Cresskill NJ: Hampton Press.

Butters, Ronald R., and Ruth M. Nix. 1986. The English of Blacks in Wilmington, North Carolina. In Montgomery & Bailey, eds. 1986: 254-63.

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C

Cassidy, Frederic Gomes. 1980. The place of Gullah. American Speech 55: 3-16.

Cecil, N.L. 1988. Black dialect and academic success: A study of teacher expectations. Reading Improvement: 34-38, 25. [Cecil 1988]

Chambers, John W., Jr., ed. 1983. Black English: educational equity and the law. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Pubs.

Chun, Elaine. 2001. The construction of White, Black, and Korean American identities through African American Vernacular English. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11(1): 52-64.

Cole, Patricia A. & Orlando L. Taylor. 1990. Performance of working class African American children on three tests of articulation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 21(3): 171-76.

Cooley, Marianne. 1997. An early representation of African-American English. In C Bernstein, T Nunnally & R Sabino, eds., Language variety in the South revisited. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 51-58.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia. 1988. Determining change in progress vs. stable variation in two studies of BEV. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics, Memphis, TN, 25 March. [In The SECOL Review?]

Cukor-Avila, Patricia. 1995. The evolution of AAVE in a rural Texas community: An ethnolinguistic study. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia and Guy Bailey. 1996. The spread of urban AAVE: A case study. In Jennifer Arnold, Renee Blake, Brad Davison, Scott Schwenter and Julie Solomon, eds., Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, theory and analysis. Selected papers from NWAV-23 at Stanford: 469-485. Stanford Ca: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia. 1999. Stativity and copula absence in AVE: Grammatical constraints at the subcategorical level. Journal of English Linguistics 27(4):341-355.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia and Guy Bailey. 2001. The effects of the race of the interviewer on sociolinguistic fieldwork. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5(2):254-270.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia. 2001. Co-existing grammars: The relationship between the evolution of African American and Southern White Vernacular English in the South. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 93-127.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia. 2003. The complex grammatical history of African-American and white vernaculars in the South. In Stephen J Nagle & Sara L Sanders, eds., English in the Southern United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 82-105.

Cunningham, Irma A.E. 1970. A syntactic analysis of Sea island Creole (“Gullah”). PhD dissertation, University of Michigan. [Published 1992 as PADS 75: Publications of the American Dialect Society 75. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.]

Cutler, Cecilia A. 1999. Yorkville Crossing: White teens, hip hop, and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 428-442. Special issue on 'Styling the Other', ed. Ben Rampton. (An earlier version appeared in 1997 as "Yorkville Crossing: A case study of the influence of hip hop culture on the speech of a white middle class adolescent in New York City." University of Pennsylvania working papers in linguistics 4(1): A selection of papers from NWAVE 25, 371-97.)

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D

Dalby, David. 1971. Black through White: Patterns of communication in Africa and the New World. Black-White speech relationships, ed. Walt Wolfram and Nona H. Clarke. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 99-138.

Dalby, David. 1972. The African element in American English. In Rappin' and Stylin' Out: Communication in Urban Black America, ed. Thomas Kochman. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 170-186.

Dalgish, Gerald M. 1972. A dictionary of Africanisms: Contributions of Sub-Saharan Africa to the English language. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. 1978. Shuckin' and jivin': Folklore from contemporary Black Americans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. [Dance 1978] [A source of spoken texts and perspectives rather than analyses of language]

Dandy, Evelyn B. 1991. Black Communications: Breaking down the barriers. Chicago IL: African American Images.

Dannenberg, Clare, and Walt Wolfram. 1998. Ethnic identity and grammatical restructuring: Be(s) in Lumbee English. American Speech 73(2): 139-159.

Davis, Lawrence M. and Xiozhao Huang. 1995. Syntactic features of Muncie African-American English: Eight case studies. Journal of English Linguistics 23 (1/2): 141-154.

Davis, Stuart. 2003. “Is this Negroish or Irish?” African American English, the antebellum writings of Francis Lieber, and the origins controversy. American Speech 78(3): 285-306.

Dayton, Elizabeth. 1981. The social context of be done-a Black English tense/aspect marker?Paper presented to 10th annual conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation in English (NWAVE-X). Philadelphia, PA.

Dayton, Elizabeth. 1984. The alternation between the was form of the zero copula, unstressed been, and was/were in copula position in Black English: Reflection of creole origins. 13th annual conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation in English. Philadelphia, PA.

Dayton, Elizabeth. 1996. Grammatical categories of the verb in African-American Vernacular English. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. (UMI order no. 9712915. 1,086 pp.)

DeBose, Charles E. 1992. Codeswitching: Black English and Standard English in the African American linguistic repertoire. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13(12): 157-67. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. [Special issue on Codeswitching, ed. Carol Eastman]

Debose, Charles, and Nicholas Faraclas. 1993. An Africanist approach to the linguistic study of Black English: Getting to the African roots of the tense/aspect/modality and copula systems in Afro-American. S. Mufwene, ed., Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties: 364-387. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Debose, Charles. 2005. The sociology of African American language: A language planning perspective. Palgrave.

D’Eloia, Sarah G. 1973. Issues in the analysis of Negro non-standard English: A review of J. L. Dillard's Black English: Its history and usage in the United States. Journal of English Linguistics 7: 87-106.

Delpit, Lisa. 1998. Ebonics and culturally responsive instruction. In Theresa Perry and Lisa Delpit, eds., The real Ebonics debate: Power, language, and the education of African-American children. Boston: Beacon, 17-28. (Originally published as a special edition of Rethinking Schools.)

Denning, Keith. 1989. Convergence with divergence: A sound change in Vernacular Black English. Language Variation and Change 1: 145-167.

Deser, Toni. 1990. Dialect transmission and variation: An acoustic analysis of vowels in six urban Detroit families. PhD dissertation, Boston University.

DeStefano, J. 1971. Black attitudes toward Black English: A pilot study. Florida Foreign Language Reporter 9:23-27.

Di Giulio, R.C. 1973. Measuring teacher attitudes toward Black English: A pilot project. The Florida Foreign Language Reporter, Spring/Fall: 25-26, 49.

Dillard, Joseph L. 1964. The writings of Herskovits and the study of the language of the Negro in the New World. Caribbean Studies 4: xx-xx.

Dillard, Joseph L. 1968. Non-standard Negro dialects-convergence or divergence? Florida Foreign Language Reporter 6:9-10, 12.

Dillard, J. L. 1969. Bidialectal education: Black English and Standard English in the United States. In B. Spolsky and R. Cooper, eds., Case studies in bilingual education. Newbury House.

Dillard, J.L.  1970. Non-standard Negro dialects: Convergence or divergence? In Afro-American anthropology: Contemporary perspectives, eds. Norman E. Whitten, Jr., & John F. Szwed. New York: Free Press.

Dillard, J.L. 1971. The creolist and the study of Negro non-standard dialects in the continental United States. In Pidginization and creolization of languages, ed. Dell Hymes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 394-408.

Dillard, J. L. 1971. The West African day-names in Nova Scotia. Names 19:256-61.

Dillard, J.L. 1972. Black English: Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.

Dillard, J. L. 1973. The history of Black English. Revista Interamericana/Interamerican Review 2:507-20.

Dillard, J.L. 1972. On a context for dialect data: The case of Black English. The Florida FL Reporter (Spring/Fall 1972): 17-18, 53-4.

Dillard, J.L. 1973. The historian’s history and the reconstructionist’s history in the tracing of linguistic variants. The Florida FL Reporter (Spring/Fall 1973): 9-10, 41.

Dillard, J.L. 1975. On the beginnings of Black English in the New World. IN Linguistic perspectives on Black English, ed. Philip A. Luelsdorff. Regensburg: Hans Carl, 29-44.

Dillard, J.L., ed. 1975. Perspectives on Black English. The Hague: Mouton.

Dillard, J.L. 1976. Black Names. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Dillard, J.L. 1977. Lexicon of Black English. New York: The Seabury Press.

Dillard, J.L. 1993. The relative value of ex-slave narratives: A discussion of Schneider’s paper. In Mufwene, ed. 1993:222-31.

Dollard, John. 1939. The dozens: Dialectics of insult. The American Imago 1:3-25. [Reprinted 1973 in A. Dundes, ed.]

Dorrill, George T. 1982. Black and white speech in the South: Evidence from the Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic states. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Ph.D. dissertation.

Dorrill, George T. 1986. A comparison of stressed vowels of black and white speakers in the South. In M. Montgomery & G. Bailey, eds., Language variety in the South: Perspectives in black and white, 1986: 149-57. Montgomery: Univ. of Alabama Press.

Dubois, Sylvie, & Megan Melançon. 2000. “Creole is, Creole ain’t”: Diachronic and synchronic attitudes toward Creole identity in South Louisiana. Language in Society 29: 237–58.

Dubois, Sylvie & Barbara M. Horvath. 2003. Creoles and Cajuns: A portrait in black and white. American Speech 78(2): 192-207.

Dundes, Alan, comp. 1973 [1981]. Mother wit from the laughing barrel: Readings in the interpretation of Afro-American folklore. Jackson MS: University Press of Mississippi. [Reprinted 1981, New York: Garland.]

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Schrock, Earl F. Jr. 1986. Some features of the be verb in the speech of Blacks of Pope County, Arkansas. In Montgomery and Bailey, eds.: 202-15.

Sclafani, Jennifer. 2008. The intertextual origins of public opinion: Constructing Ebonics in the New York Times. Discourse & Society 19(4): 507-527. [Sclafani 2008]

Scott, Jerrie L.C. 1998. The serious side of Ebonics humor. Journal of English Linguistics 26(2): 137-155. [Scott 1998]

Sells, Peter, John R. Rickford & Thomas Wasow. 1996. Variation in negative inversion in AAVE. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter & J. Solomon, eds., Sociolinguistic variation: data, theory, and analysis. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 161-176.

Shuy, Roger W. 1969. Subjective judgements in sociolinguistic analysis. In James E. Alatis, ed., Linguistics and the teaching of Standard English to speakers of other languages or dialects. Report of the 20th Annual Round Table meeting on Linguistics and Language Studies. (Monograph series on Languages and Linguistics, Vol. 22, 1969.) Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 175-188. [Shuy 1969]

Shuy, Roger W., Joan C. Baratz and Walter Wolfram. 1969. Sociolinguistic factors in speech identification. National Institute of Mental Health Project Report No. MH 15048-01.

Shuy, Roger W. and Frederick Williams. 1973. Stereotyped attitudes of selected English dialect communities. In Roger W. Shuy and Ralph W. Fasold, eds., Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects, 85-96. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. [Shuy & Williams 1973]

Shuy, Roger W., Walt Wolfram, & William C. Riley. 1968. A study of social dialects in Detroit. USOE Final Report No. BR-6-1347. [Online ERIC: ED022187]

Shuy, Roger W., Walt Wolfram, & William C. Riley. 1968. Field techniques in an urban language study. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. [Online ERIC: ED022156]

Silverman, S. 1975. The learning of Black English by Puerto Ricans in New York. In JL Dillard, ed., Perspectives on Black English, 331-357.

Simpkins, Gary and Charletta Simpkins. 1981. Cross-cultural approach to curriculum development. Geneva Smitherman, ed., Black English and the education of Black children and youth: Proceedings of the National Invitational Symposium on the King decision. Detroit: Center for Black Studies, Wayne State University, 212-40.

Singler, John V. 1989. Plural marking in Liberian Settler English. American Speech. 64(1): 40-64.

Singler, John V. 1991a. Copula variation in Liberian Settler English and American Black English. Verb phrase patterns in Black English and Creole. Walter F. Edwards & Donald Winford, eds. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 129-64.

Singler, John V. 1991b. Social and linguistic constraints on plural marking in Liberian English. English around the world: Sociolinguistic perspectives. Jenny Cheshire, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 545-61.

Singler, John V. 1993. African influence upon Afro-American language varieties: A consideration of socio-historical factors. Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties. Salikoko S. Mufwene, ed. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 235-53.

Singler, John V. 1998. What's not new in AAVE. American Speech 73(3): 227-256.

Smith, Ernie. 1998. What is Black English? What is Ebonics? In Theresa Perry and Lisa Delpit, eds., The Real Ebonics Debate: Power, Language and the Education of African-American Children, 49-58. Boston: Beacon Press.

Smith, Jennifer. 2001. Negative concord in the Old and New World: Evidence from Scotland. Language Variation and Change 13(2): 109-134. [Comparison to AAVE leads to conclusion that “AAVE look[s] much like nonstandard varieties from Britain]

Smitherman, Geneva. 1977. Talkin' and testifyin': The language of Black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. [Reissued 1986: Detroit: Wayne State U. Press]

Smitherman, Geneva, ed. 1981. Black English and the education of Black children and youth: Proceedings of the National Invitational Symposium on the King decision. Detroit: Center for Black Studies, Wayne State University.

Smitherman, Geneva. 1981. What go round come round: King in perspective. Harvard Educational Review 51: 40-56.

Smitherman, Geneva. 1985.  ‘It bees dat way sometime’: Sounds and structure of present-day Black English. In Virginia P. Clark, ed., Language: Introductory readings, 552-568. New York: St. Martin’s Press

Smitherman, Geneva. 1991.  'What is Africa to me?' Language, ideology and African American. American Speech 66(2): 115-32.

Smitherman, Geneva. 1992. Black English, diverging or converging? The view from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Language and Education 6(1): 47-61. [Smitherman 1992]

Smitherman, Geneva. 1994. [Rev ed. 2000.] Black Talk: Words and phrases from the hood to the amen corner. NY: Houghton Mifflin Co. [Smitherman 1994]

Smitherman, Geneva. 1995. If I’m Lyin’, I’m Flyin’:An introduction to the art of the snap. In James L. Percelay, Stephan Dweck, and Monteria Ivey, Double Snaps. New York: Quill/William Morrow, pp. 14-33. [also apparently reprinted in Smitherman 2000]

Smitherman, Geneva. 1998. Word from the hood: The lexicon of African-American English. In Mufwene et al, eds., African American English: Structure, history and use: 203-225. New York: Routledge.

Smitherman, Geneva. 2000. Talkin That Talk: Language, Culture & Education in African America. NY: Routledge. [ISBN: 0-4152-0864-5]

Smitherman, Geneva. 2004. Language and African Americans: Movin on up a lil higher. Journal of English Linguistics 32(3): 186-196. [Smitherman 2004]

Smitherman, Geneva, and Sylvia Cunningham. 1997. Moving beyond resistance: Ebonics and African American youth. Journal of Black Psychology 23(3): 227-232. [Smitherman & Cunningham 1997]

Smitherman-Donaldson, Geneva & Teun van Dijk, eds. 1988. Discourse and discrimination. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Sommer, Elisabeth. 1986. Variation in Southern urban English. In Montgomery and Bailey, eds.: 180-201.

Sonntag, Selma K. & Jonathan Pool. 1987. Linguistic denial and linguistic self denial: American ideologies of language. (1987) Language Problems and Language Planning 11(1): 46-65.

Spears, Arthur K. 1982. The semi-auxiliary come in Black English Vernacular. Language 58: 850-72.

Spears, Arthur K. 1987. Are black and white vernaculars diverging? American Speech 62(1): 48-55.

Spears, Arthur K. 1988. Black American English. Anthropology for the Nineties. Johnnetta B. Cole, ed. New York: Free Press, 96-113.

Spears, Arthur K. 1992. Reassessing the status of Black English. Language in Society 21: 675-82.

Spears, Arthur K. 1998. African-American language use: ideology and so-called obscenity. In Mufwene et al, eds., African American English: Structure, history and use: 226-250. New York: Routledge.

Spears, Arthur K., ed. 1999. Race and ideology: Language, symbolism, and popular culture. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Spears, Arthur K. 2001. Directness in the use of African American English. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 239-259.

Speicher, Barbara L. & Seane M. McMahon. 1992. Some African American perspectives on Black English Vernacular. Language in Society 21(3):383-407. [Speicher & McMahon 1992]

Stewart, William A. 1964. Urban Negro speech: Sociolinguistic factors affecting English teaching. In Roger W. Shuy, ed., Social dialects and language learning: Proceedings of the Bloomington, Indiana conference, 10-19. Champaign IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Stewart, William A. 1967. Sociolinguistic factors in the history of American Negro dialects. Florida F[oreign] L[anguage] Reporter 5(2):1-7. [Reprinted in Allen and Underwood, eds.: 444-53.]

Stewart, William A. 1968. Continuity and change in American Negro dialects. Florida F[oreign] L[anguage] Reporter 6(1):3-4, 14-16, 18. [Reprinted in Allen and Underwood, eds. 1971: 454-67; also in JL Dillard, ed. 1975, Perspectives on Black English, 233-247.]

Stewart, William A. 1969. Historical and structural bases for the recognition of Negro dialect. In James E. Alatis, ed., Linguistics and the teaching of Standard English to speakers of other languages or dialects. (Georgetown Monographs on Language and Linguistics, Vol. 22.) Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 239-247.

Stewart, William A. 1969. Sociopolitical issues in the linguistic treatment of Negro dialect. In James E. Alatis, ed., Linguistics and the teaching of Standard English to speakers of other languages or dialects. (Georgetown Monographs on Language and Linguistics, Vol. 22.) Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 215-223.

Stewart, William A. 1970. Understanding Black language. In Black America, ed. John F. Szwed. New York: Basic Books.

Stewart, William A. 1975. Acculturative processes and the language of the American Negro. In Language in its social setting, ed. William Gage. Washington, DC: Anthropological Society of Washington.

Stewart, William A. 1975. Observations (1966) on the problems of defining Negro Dialect. In Perspectives on Black English, ed. J.L. Dillard. The Hague: Mouton, 57-64.

Stoller, Paul, ed. 1975. Black American English: Its background and its usage in the schools and in literature. NY: Delta.

Summerlin, Nan Jo Corbitt. 1972. A dialect study: Affective parameters in the deletion and substitution of consonants in the deep South. Florida State Univ. Ph.D. dissertation.

Sutcliffe, David. 1996. Recutting and the history of the Black English copula. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica 4: 59-86. Bamberg.

Sutcliffe, David. 1997. Breaking old ground: African American English and the search for its past. H. Ramisch and K. Wynne, eds., Language in time and space: Festschrift in honour of Wolfgang Viereck.

Sutcliffe, David. 1998. African American Vernacular English: Origins and issues. PhD thesis, University of Reading.

Sutcliffe, David. 1998. Gone with the wind? Evidence for 19th century African American speech. Links & Letters 5: 127-145. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Sutcliffe, David. 1999. Gleaning after the reapers have passed: A new look at attestations of Creole in the Ex-Slave recordings. The Creolist Archives Papers Online: http://www.ling.su.se/Creole/Archive/Sutcliffe-1.html  Abstract: [Sutcliffe 1999]

Sutcliffe, David. 2001. The voice of the ancestors: New evidence on 19th-century precursors to 20th-century African American English. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 129-168.

Sweetland, Julie Dawn. 1997. Black as spades: African American English in informal interactions between White and Black friends. Georgetown University senior honors thesis (unpublished). [Sweetland 1997]

Sweetland, Julie Dawn. 2002. Unexpected but authentic use of an ethnically-marked dialect. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(4): 514-538.

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Tagliamonte, Sali. [For work on African American Diaspora varieties outside the USA, click here.]

Tagliamonte, Sali Anna. 1991. A matter of time: Past temporal reference verbal structures in Samana English and the Ex-Slave Recordings. PhD diss., University of Ottawa. (UMI order no. NN68011. 488 pp.)

Tarone, Elaine E. 1973. Aspects of intonation in Black English. American Speech 48 (1): 29-36.

Taylor, Hanni U. 1989. Standard English, Black English, and bidialectalism: A controversy. New York: Peter Lang.

Taylor, Orlando. 1973. Teachers’ attitudes toward Black English and nonstandard English as measured by the language attitude scale. In Roger W. Shuy and Ralph W. Fasold, eds., Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects, 174-201. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. [Taylor 1973]

Terrell, S.L., and F.Terrell. 1983. “Effects of speaking Black English upon Employment opportunities.” ASHA 25 (6): 27-9.

Thomas, Erik R. 2001. An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English. Publication of the American Dialect Society 85.

Thomas, Erik R. & Guy Bailey. 1998. Parallels between vowel subsystems of African American Vernacular English and Caribbean Anglophone Creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 13: 267-296.

Thomas, Erik R. & Reaser, Jeffrey. 2004. Delimiting perceptual cues used for the ethnic labeling of African American and European American voices. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8(1): 54-87.

Tomlin, Carol. 1999. Black language style in sacred and secular contexts. Brooklyn NY: Caribbean Diaspora Press, Inc. (Caribbean Research Center, Medgar Evers College, CUNY).

Tottie, Gunnel & Michel Rey. 1997. Relativization strategies in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 9(2): 219-247.

Tottie, Gunnel & Dawn Harvie. 2000. It’s all relative: relativization strategies in early African American English. In S. Poplack, ed., The English history of African American English, 198-230. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Trent, Sonja A. 1995. Voice quality: Listener identification of African-American versus Caucasian speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98: 2936.

Troike, Rudolph C. 1973. On social, regional, and age variation in Black English. Florida FL Reporter (Spring/Fall 1973): 7-8.

Troike, Rudolph C. 2003. The earliest Gullah/AAVE texts: A case of 19th-century mesolectal variation. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics 18 (2): 159-229.

Troutman, Denise. 2001. African American women: Talking that talk. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 211-237.

Tucker, G.R. and W. E. Lambert. 1969. White and Negro listeners’ reactions to various American English dialects. Social Forces 47: 463-468. [Reprinted in JL Dillard, ed., Perspectives on Black English, 369-377.]

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Van, S. I. 1976. My Gullah brother and I: Exploration into a community’s language and myth through its oral tradition. In DS Harrison & Tom Trabasso, eds., Black English: A seminar. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 123-146.

Van Herk, Gerard. 1998. Auxiliary verbs in early African American Vernacular English questions: Non-inversion, deletion, and inherent variability. Proceedings of the Canadian Linguistics Association Annual Conference, ed. by J. Jensen & G. Van Herk, 421-430. Ottawa: Cahiers linguistiques d'Ottawa.

Van Herk, Gerard. 1998. Inversion in Samaná English question formation. Cahiers linguistiques d'Ottawa 26.71-83.

Van Herk, Gerard. 2000. The question question: auxiliary inversion in early African American English. In S. Poplack, ed., The English history of African American English, 175-197. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Van Herk, Gerard & Shana Poplack. 2003. Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the Ottawa repository of early African American correspondence. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics 18 (2): 231-266.

Van Herk, Gerard & James A. Walker. S marks the spot? Regional variation and early African American English correspondence. Language Variation and Change 17(2):113-31.

Van Keulen, Jean E., Gloria Tolliver Weddington, and Charles E. DeBose. 1998. Speech, language, learning, and the African American child. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Vaughn-Cooke, Anna Fay. 1972. The Black preaching style: Historical development and characteristics. In William K Riley & David M Smith, eds., Languages and Linguistics Working Papers, no. 5: Sociolinguistics, 28-39. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Vaughn-Cooke, Fay Boyd. 1976. The implementation of a phonological change: The case of resyllabification in Black English. Ph.D. dissertation. Georgetown University.

Vaughn-Cooke, Fay Boyd. 1986. Lexical diffusion: evidence from a decreolizing variety of Black English. In M. Montgomery and G. Bailey, eds., Language variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White. Tuscaloosa, Ala: University of Alabama Press, 111-30.

Vaughn-Cooke, Fay Boyd. 1987. Are Black and White vernaculars diverging? American Speech 62(1):12-32.

Vaughn-Cooke, Fay. 2007. Lessons learned from the Ebonics controversy: Implications for language assessment. In Robert Bayley & Ceil Lucas (eds.), Sociolinguistic variation: Theories, methods and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 254-275.

Veatch, Thomas. 1992. Racial barriers and phonological merger. Paper given at NWAVE XXI, Ann Arbor MI, October 1992.

Viereck, Wolfgang. 1988. Invariant be in an unnoticed source of American early Black English. American Speech 63: 291-303.

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Wachal, Robert S. 2000. Capitalization of Black and Native American. American Speech 75(4):364-365. [brief]

Wald, Benji. 1995. The problem of scholarly predisposition. Review of G. Bailey et al. 1991, The emergence of Black English. Language in Society 24(2):245-58.

Walker, James. 1999. Rephrasing the copula: Contraction and zero in Early African American English. Chap. 2 in S Poplack, ed., The English history of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell, 35-72.

Walker, James A. 2001. Using the past to explain the present: Tense and temporal reference in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 13(1): 1-35.

Walker, James A. with Gerard Van Herk. 2003. “We labors under a great deal of disadvantiges”: Verbal -s in Early African American English. In Burelle, S. & Somesfalean, S. (eds.), CLA Annual Conference Proceedings 2002.

Walker, James A. The ain't constraint: Not-contraction in early African American English. Language Variation and Change 17(1):1-17.

Walker, James A. & Darin Howe. See under Howe, D & J Walker.

Walton, Julie H. & Robert F. Orlikoff. 1994. Speaker race identification from acoustic cues in the vocal signal. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 37: 738-745.

Weaver, Constance. 1970. Analyzing literary representations of recent northern urban Negro speech: A technique with application to three books. Ph.D. diss., Michigan State Univ.

Weldon, Tracey L. 1995. Variability in negation in African American vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 6: 359-397.

Weldon, Tracey L. 1998. Exploring the AAVE-Gullah connection: A comparative study of copula variability. PhD diss., Ohio State University.

Weldon, Tracey L. 2003. Copula variability in Gullah. Language Variation and Change 15(1): 37-72.

Weldon, Tracey. 2003. Revisiting the creolist hypothesis: Copula variability in Gullah and Southern rural AAVE. American Speech 78(2): 171-191.

Wharry, Cheryl. 2003. Amen and hallelujah preaching: Discourse functions in African American sermons.  Language in Society 32(2).

Whatley, Elizabeth. 1981. Language in Black America. In Charles Ferguson & Shirley Brice-Heath, eds., Language in the USA, 92-107. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

White, Michael J., Beverly J. Vandiver, Maria L. Becker, Belinda G. Overstreet, Linda E. Temple, Kelly L. Hagan and Emily P. Mandelbaum. 1998. African American evaluations of Black English and Standard American English. Journal of Black Psychology 24(1): 60-75. [White et al. 1998]

Whitehead, JL, and Leslie M Miller. 1972. Correspondence between evaluations of children’s speech and speech anticipated upon the basis of stereotype. Southern Speech Communications Journal 7(3): 375-386.

Whiteman, Marcia Farr. 1972. Dialect differences in testing the language of children. Working Papers in Linguistics, no. 5: Sociolinguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Whiteman, Marcia Farr. 1980. Reactions to Ann Arbor: Vernacular Black English and Education. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Whiteman, Marcia Farr. 1981. Dialect influence in writing, in M. F. Whiteman (ed), Variation in writing: Functional and linguistic-cultural differences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Whitten, Norman E. Jr., & John F. Szwed, eds. 1970. Afro-American anthropology: Contemporary perspectives. New York: Free Press.

Williams, Frederick. 1970a. Language, attitudes and social change. In F. Williams, ed., Language and poverty. Chicago: Markham Publishing Co. [Williams et al. 1970-1973] (Abstract describes project associated with the entries immediately following)

Williams, Frederick. 1970b. Psychological correlates of speech characteristics: On sounding ‘disadvantaged’. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 13: 472-488.

Williams, Frederick. 1973a. Some research notes on dialect attitudes and stereotypes. In Roger W. Shuy and Ralph W. Fasold, eds., Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects, 113-128. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Williams, Frederick. 1973b. Some recent studies of language attitudes. In Roger W. Shuy, ed., Some new directions in linguistics, 121-149. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Williams, Frederick, JL Whitehead, and Leslie M Miller. 1971. Ethnic stereotyping and judgments of children’s speech. Speech Monographs 38: 166-170.

Williams, Frederick, JL Whitehead, and J Traupmann. 1971. Teachers’ evaluations of children’s speech. Speech Teacher 20: 247-254.

Williams, Frederick, JL Whitehead, and Leslie M Miller. 1972. Relations between language attitudes and teacher expectancy. American Educational Research Journal 9(2):263-277

Williams, Frederick, and WA Shamo. 1972. Regional variation in teachers’ attitudes toward children’s language. Central States Speech Journal 23.

Williams, Robert L., ed. 1975 [1997]. Ebonics: The true language of Black folks. St. Louis Institute for Black Studies. [Reprinted 1997 by St. Louis: Robert L. Williams and Associates, Inc.]

Williamson, Juanita V. 1970. Selected features of speech: Black and white. CLA Journal 13:420-33.

Winford, Donald. 1990. Copula variability, accountability, and the concept of polylectal grammars. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 5(2):223-252.

Winford, Donald. 1992. Another look at the copula in Black English and Caribbean Creoles. American Speech 67(1), 21-60.

Winford, Donald. 1992. Back to the past: The B[lack]E[nglish]V[ernacular]/Creole connection revisited. Language Variation and Change 4(3): 311-57.

Winford, Donald. 1997. On the origins of African American Vernacular English - A creolist perspective. Part 1: Sociohistorical background. Diachronica XIV:2, 305-44. [Winford 1997]

Winford, Donald. 1998. On the origins of African American Vernacular English - A creolist perspective. Part 2: Linguistic features. Diachronica XV:1, 99-154.

Winford, Donald. 2000. Plus ça change: The state of studies in African American English. American Speech 75(4): 409-411. [brief]

Wolfram, Walt. 1969. A sociolinguistic description of Detroit Negro speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, Walt. 1973. Sociolinguistic aspects of assimilation: Puerto Rican English in East Harlem. Arlington VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, Walt. 1973. Objective and subjective parameters of language assimilation among second-generation Puerto Ricans in East Harlem. In Roger W. Shuy and Ralph W. Fasold, eds., Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects, 148-173. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Wolfram, Walt. 1974. The relationship of white southern speech to vernacular black English. Language 50: 498-527.

Wolfram, Walt. 1987. Are black and white vernaculars diverging? American Speech 62(1): 40-48.

Wolfram, Walt. 1990. Re-examining Vernacular Black English. Review article. Language 66(1):121-34.

Wolfram, Walt. 1994. On the sociolinguistic significance of dialect structures: The [NPi Call NPi V-ing] construction in African-American vernacular English. American Speech 69: 339-360.

Wolfram, Walt. 1998. Language ideology and dialect: Understanding the Oakland Ebonics controversy. Journal of English Linguistics 26(2): 108-121. [Wolfram 1998]

Wolfram, Walt. 1998. Black children are verbally deprived. In Laurie Bauer & Peter Trudgill, eds., Language Myths. London: Penguin, 103-112.

Wolfram, Walt. 1999. Repercussions from the Oakland Ebonics controversy: The critical role of dialect awareness programs. In Carolyn Adger Temple, Donna Christian & Orlando Taylor, eds., Making the connection: Language and academic achievement among African American students. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems Co., Inc. 61-80.

Wolfram, Walt. 2000. On the construction of vernacular dialect norms. CLS 36: The panels. The proceedings from the panels of the Chicago Linguistic Society’s thirty-sixth meeting, Volume 36-2, Ed. Arika Okrent and John P. Boyle. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 335-358. [Wolfram 2000]

Wolfram, Walt. 2001. Reconsidering the sociolinguistic agenda for African American English: The next generation of research and application. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 331-362.

Wolfram, Walt and D. Beckett. 2000. The role of the individual and the group in earlier African American English. American Speech 75 (1): 3-33.

Wolfram, Walt and Nona H. Clarke, eds. 1971. Black-White speech relationships. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, Walter A. and Ralph W. Fasold. 1969. Towards reading materials for speakers of black English: Three linguistically appropriate passages. In J.C. Baratz & R. Shuy, eds., 138-155.

Wolfram, Walt and Ralph W. Fasold. 1974. The study of social dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wolfram, Walt, Kirk Hazen and Jennifer Ruff Tamburro. 1997. Isolation within isolation: A solitary century of African-American Vernacular English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 1(1): 7-38.

Wolfram, Walt & Natalie Schilling-Estes. 2003. Language change in "conservative" dialects: The case of past tense be in Southern enclave communities. American Speech 78(2): 208-227.

Wolfram, Walt, Erik R. Thomas & Elaine W. Green. 2000. The regional context of earlier African American speech: Evidence for reconstructing the development of AAVE. Language in Society 29: 315-355.

Wolfram, Walt and Erik R. Thomas. 2002. The development of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wolfram, Walt and Marcia Farr Whiteman. 1971. The role of dialect interference in composition. Florida F[oreign] L[anguage] Reporter, spring/fall 1971.

Wyatt, Toya A. 1991. Linguistic constraints on copula production in Black English child speech. Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts.

Wyatt, Toya A. 1995. Language development in African American English child speech. Linguistics and Education 7: 7-22.

Wyatt, Toya A. 2001. The role of family, community and school in children’s acquisition and maintenance of African American English. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 261-280.

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Yetman, Norman R. 1984. Ex-slave interviews and the historiography of slavery. American Quarterly 36: 181-210.

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Zeigler, Mary B. 2001. Something to Shout about: African American Vernacular English as a linguistic and cultural treasure. In Lanehart, Sonja L (ed), Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English, 169-185.

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Peter L. Patrick's homepage

Summaries of a few readings here

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British Afro-Caribbean English bibliography

Attitudes to African American English bibliography

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