Last updated 22 March 2004

 Links to resources

in my areas of interest

Peter L. Patrick

There are a lot of great linguistics links pages out there, so I'm not going to try to duplicate them. Instead, this is sort of a web-extension of my research interests, including sources I use regularly and find valuable, or wish I had time to use more. Some of them are not much used by linguists but sh/could be. This is necessarily a drop in an infinite bucket-- nevertheless you may know or operate a site that should obviously be here! Please drop me a line (see my contact info).

Language Variation, Urban Dialectology and Sociolinguistics

Creoles and Pidgins

African American Vernacular English

Anthropology, Folklore, etc.

General Resources in Linguistics


Language Variation, Urban Dialectology and Sociolinguistics

The American Dialect Society ( a rich site with info, both popular and scholarly, on speech in the Americas (mostly Englishes but not limited to the USA), including links to journals, associations, dictionaries, information on American Englishes in general and individual dialects and dialect areas/phenomena (e.g. Philadelphia, North Carolina, Canadian Raising), as well as North American Linguistic Atlases (a list and links can be found at such as the Phonological Atlas of North America by William Labov et al. at A favorite resource is the Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE) at

The most important annual conference in these areas is called NWAV(E), New Ways of Analyzing Variation [with or without the "E/e", which originally (1972) stood for "in English", depending on the year and organizers]. There is no organization associated with NWAV(E), which meets somewhere in North America each October. In recent years there have been dedicated webpages, a few of which are still running and list abstracts, schedules etc., which will give you an idea of its coverage and, particularly for the major field of variation (though all sorts of other areas are represented such as code-switching, discourse analysis, ASL linguistics, pidgins and creoles, etc.), a good sample of what current research is like.

Proceedings of some recent NWAVEs (24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31 and forthcoming 32) are available through the Penn Working Papers series at

The most recent conference was at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Pa, 9-12 October 2003, and the upcoming one will be at the University of Michigan in October 2004, followed by New York University in October 2005.

For past conferences,  try the following pages, however most of them have not been archived or maintained. I think it would be a good idea for departments which sponsor the conferences to maintain such archives, otherwise to find out when a certain paper was given or by whom, you have to find someone (like me) with lots of old hand-outs – not easy for students to do... However no-one seems to agree, so the following list is mostly of historical interest!

NWAV-32 2003 in Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania)

NWAV-31 2002 in Stanford, CA (Stanford University)

NWAV-30 2001 in Raleigh NC (North Carolina State University)

NWAV-29 2000 in East Lansing MI (Michigan State University)

NewWAVE-28 1999 in Toronto (York University and the University of Toronto)

NWAVE-27 1998 in Athens Ga. (University of Georgia)

NWAVE-26 1997 in Quebec (Université Laval)

NWAVE-25 1996 in Las Vegas, Nevada (U. Nevada at Las Vegas)

NWAVE-24 1995 in Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania)

VIEW 2000 (University of Essex, Colchester UK -- yep, we done it) is one page that is still up (archived, naturally). VIEW 2000 was a variation conference with a focus on linguistics in the British Isles. Its successor, with the somewhat unpronounceable name of

UK-LVC3, was held at York, 19-22 July 2001:

UK-LVC4,  was held at Sheffield University in Sept 2003: , and we hope that the follow-up, probably also named /ʌklavʌk/ (or is that /ʊklavʊk/ ?) will be held in Aberdeen in 2005.

A research site for Canadian French sociolinguistics is maintained by CIRAL (Centre International de Recherche en AmJnagement Linguistique) at UniversitJ Laval:

The Language Varieties Network at provides a forum for description and discussion of minority and stigmatized varieties from a sociolinguistic viewpoint.

A volume mapping the languages spoken by London's schoolchildren is available from Battlebridge Press. Multi-lingual Capital: The languages of London's schoolchildren and their relevance to economic, social and educational policies, edited by Philip Baker & John Eversley (2000), (including some online maps), is described on the Battlebridge website at (yes, spelled like that!).

Linguists (and especially their students!) spend a fair amount of time -- though perhaps not enough -- agonizing about the ethics of their work, especially fieldwork. (This is sometimes taken as a reason not to do any, or not to do the difficult stuff…) I don't know of any web resources on this topic, so I've put up a mini-page of resources (annotated bib., web links) on the ethics of sociolinguistic research:

My list of sociolinguistics textbooks and surveys written in languages other than English is on my coursepage at

My bibliography on (TD) is at It lists key references with comments on the linguistic variable (TD), otherwise known as /-t, -d/-deletion or consonant-cluster simplification. Works cited cover a range of varieties of English dialects and Creoles, as well as theoretical advances in describing and explaining variation, made for this "showcase linguistic variable". A companion page gives an introduction to the (TD) variable at, including examples of exclusion and coding for the three main linguistic constraints. I have also put up a chart comparing frequencies for 13 classic studies of white and black English dialects in the Americas, by two main constraints (following environment and grammatical category), at


Creoles and Pidgins

The basic source for years, the Creolist Archives (formerly at ), has been decommissioned (Sept 2002) for lack of resources. This is a great pity as it was excellent on many key aspects of P/C studies, and had a large links collection, e a P/Cs FAQ, original sources (texts, speech files), a directory of scholars, online research papers, bibliographies and much more. The email discussion list is archived at: until Sept '98 -- skips a few months -- and Jan '99 to summer 2002 on The list, only, was restarted on Yahoo! at, and one hopes it will survive there.

The major academic journal in the field is Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages (JPCL), currently located at Ohio State University, A few things are available online, though more would be nice! See also Etudes Creoles below for French-language publications. The Carrier Pidgin is a venerable and indispensable English-language newsletter,; contents from 1998 are available online.

A fine French-language and francophone-creole source is run by le Groupe Européen de Recherches en Langues Créoles

(formerly the Institut d'Etudes Creoles et Francophones, more or less) at It contains a good francophone links page (…/sites.htm), plus a …/FAQ.htm, etc. Online archives and journals include Creolica at, and Gazet sifon ble / Lavwa ka bay at

Crioulística, at, is a Portuguese-language site on Ps/Cs run from the Universidade de Brasilia, with online articles, abstracts of theses defended at UnB, texts, proverbs, conference notices etc, including contents listings for Papia: Revista de Crioulos de Base Ibérica, a journal for Spanish- and Portuguese-related Creoles, since its first issue in 1990 at

The Language Varieties Network, located at, provides a forum for discussion of Pidgins and Creoles and other stigmatized varieties with a focus on educational issues.

The Linguistic Society of America publishes a very brief intro to Languages in Contact, the broader field which includes P/C studies, at (go to site index or FAQ and browse).

The University of Siegen hosts a Pidgins and Creoles Archive at A distribution point for research papers which contains papers and reviews from 1999-2002 (well, one from 1992), it is still small (c. a dozen papers) but already useful, and has an automated mailing list for new additions.

A good catalogue of information on a wide range of languages, from a macro descriptive point of view, is the Ethnologue site by SiL (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics). By looking under their "Language Family" index at you can find selective Pidgin and Creole listings (though this is by no means a complete list of Ps/Cs, and has some oddly-organized entries).

Another good links page, with a strong concentration on things Haitian but some others as well (including literacy, orthography, broadcasting, court interpreting, Creole online dictionaries & translation tools, publishers & periodicals, and conference homepages back to 1998 -- as well as their specialty area, language technologies) is run by Marilyn Mason of MIT2 at MIT2 is a "private corporation which specializes in the creation of localization and language processing software for lesser-supported languages (especially Creoles and Pidgins)" -- the only one I know of with such a focus, and definitely worth a look at …/Index2.html. is also full of information on Haiti, including linguistic, though variable in quality. Somewhere there (formerly, anyone know now?) is an extensive bibliography of writings on Haiti's language situation, maintained by the amazingly industrious Emmanuel Védrine, a one-man Creole Project who wrote them all himself:. Luckily, Védrine also frequently posts lists of works by other people on and in Haitian Creole (and there appear to be nearly as many works on the subject by other authors as there are by him) on the Creolist, see above. Every Creole should have such a champion…

A bibliography on issues of orthography from a sociolinguistic standpoint, put together by Mark Sebba -- a linguist well-known for his work on London Jamaican, aka British Black English -- is available from the Linguist List archives at It has several contributions on Creole languages. Sebba's Corpus of Written British Creole is located at; a small but interesting project. My own small list of mostly book-length works on the rise of this variety -- the creole-influenced speech spoken among British-born and/or -raised speakers of West Indian background (it's a bit hard to unify!) -- can be found at

For a remarkable critique of methodology in current creolist investigations, esp. the role of (non-)native-speaker linguists working on Creoles qua minority languages, see the detailed handout from Michel DeGraff's paper, "The data base of recent writings on Haitian Creole: Scientific and sociological implications", at the Society of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics January 1999 conference in Los Angeles: DeGraff's handouts are longer than many people's full papers, and many more good ones are available from his homepage.

For my lecture notes on Pidgins and Creoles to an introductory linguistics course (LG111 at U. Essex), check out

A survey comparing the structures of 18 Creoles from all over the world, point-for-point on nearly 100 features, is soon to appear. Edited by myself and John Holm, it features 22 international authors (some of us native speakers of the Creoles). Comparative Creole Syntax: Parallel Outlines of 18 Creole Grammars will be published soon by leading creolistics publisher Battlebridge Press ( in their Westminster Creolistics series.


African American Vernacular English

There is no basic source here, as far as I can tell, which is why I'm working up my own (see AAVE.html), including a bibliography of linguistic works on AAVE at Currently it's nearly up to 400 works; a small number (about 20) have summaries linked to them.

Other collections of writings and links, often put together in the wake of the December 1996 Ebonics controversy and thus referring to it, are located under the pages of various organizations and individuals. They list yet other links, of course, often overlapping, so this is just a sampling to get you started:

The American Dialect Society's "Links" page:

The Center for Applied Linguistics Ebonics Information Page:

The Linguistic Society of America's January 1997 statement on the issue:

The Linguist List's Topics Page on Ebonics (a collection of discussions):

A set of resources on Prof. John Baugh's (Stanford U.) homepage (Baugh is a leading educational and sociolinguist with a lifetime's experience of AAVE):

Several recent papers, and a classic from the first time AAVE really hit the news in the late 1960s/early 1970s, by Prof. William Labov (Univ. of Pennsylvania). Labov, more than any linguist, started the scientific study of African American urban speech in a sociolinguistic manner:

A useful collection of references, some annotated, to AAVE and classroom language issues can be found on Prof. Harold Schiffman's website, also at U. Penn:

An informal, helpful page by Prof. Jim Wilce, linguistic anthropologist at Northern Arizona University, collects references to AAVE literature with comments (from discussion on the linganth e-list) by linguists and anthropologists who use them to teach on the topic:

Another excellent page at Stanford by Prof. John Rickford (Rickford has worked on AAVE since the early 1970s and is also a creolist and speaker of Guyanese Creole):

A brief, clear and moving essay by educator and linguist Prof. Michele Foster, of the Center for Educational Studies at the Claremont Graduate School, is available at

A superb "state-of-the-art" conference on Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American Vernacular English took place in October 1998, organized by Dr. Sonja Lanehart, at the University of Georgia in Athens, GA. This handsome site has abstracts of most papers, bios of some of the leading researchers in the field, and some good links.

Some references I put together on the topic of THE DOZENS (African American ritual insults) are available at

A course I teach entitled Out of Africa: Creoles and Black Englishes has one term on Creoles, with more emphasis on Atlantic ones, and one on North American AAVE & British Black English; its homepage can be found at, or via my coursepage.



Anthropology, Folklore etc.

A universe in itself, obviously with a great deal to say on language and society. A few places to start:

The American Anthropological Association has an institutional home page at: which among other things connects to pages on minority issues, ethics, publications and a variety of sections and interest groups. Among the latter you'll find the Society for Linguistic Anthropology site at: Perhaps of more practical interest is a well-organized collection of Anthropology Resources on the Internet:

There's also a very cool, comprehensive site [except that it only lists 3 of the classic 4 areas of anthro, leaving out-- yes!-- linguistic anthropology! cho raas] at the University of California at Santa Barbara:

The American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress is another rich source, underused by linguists (though e.g. the Ex-Slave Recordings in its Archive of Folk Culture are very important for AAVE):

This is as good a place as any to list Hal Schiffman's forward-looking proposal for a Museum of American Linguistic Heritage, with some existing weblinks etc. at


General Resources in Linguistics

A partial, but useful, online directory of published Proceedings of Linguistics Conferences (North American-focused; including, e.g., NWAVE, LACUS, COLING, Berkeley Women and Language, etc.) is available from Cascadilla Press at

The same publisher also has a Directory of Linguistics Working Papers at, and publishes their own titles (proceedings, as well as other linguistics books and interesting products).

A good, though hardly complete, source for upcoming linguistics conferences in the USA is maintained by the University of South Carolina at: A larger page (but more diffuse, and not restricted to linguistics -- it includes translating, language teaching, etc.) on conferences related to language is maintained by Roy Cochran at The Linguistic Society of America (LSA) has an intermediate list of conferences -- larger and more international than the first, more focused on linguistics than the second -- in their quarterly bulletin, which can be read online via the main page; the current version is They also have an online page just for conference listings at, but it can get pretty out-of-date sometimes.

I've compiled a list of books on sociolinguistics, written in languages other than English. Most are introductory textbooks, but some are surveys of research in a particular language or language area. The list is at

I also have some links to resources for beginning linguists (though some are of general interest), at the bottom of my course listing:

On the ethics of sociolinguistic research, especially data collection, see my page (described above) at:

For local researchers, a list of journals in sociolinguistics at Essex University's Sloman Library is at The Sloman library main page is at The Dept. of Languages and Linguistics publishes a series of working papers called the Essex Research Reports in Linguistics, with listings at Online papers by linguists in our dept. are centrally listed at The departmental seminar calendar is at



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