LG686 Corpora in ELT in term
2. Standing in for Nigel Harwood who is on leave. I am currently updating the materials
for this. This is all about how corpora – electronic collections of real
written and spoken language – can be used in ELT. Both corpora of native
speaker language and of learner language (including errors) are available. The
ones we look at are accessible free on WWW or campus server, and although you
have to use different ‘search engines’ to look for things in them, they are
easy to use. Basically you are able to find out about frequencies of things
(words or structures) and get ‘concordances’ of real examples of how a word
etc. is used. This information may be used in many ways. Many uses are in the
ELT ‘backroom’, to guide the creation of better grammars, dictionaries,
syllabuses and coursebooks, based on ‘real’ English
rather than what experts think English is like. Another major area of use is in
‘language awareness’ tasks in the classroom with learners.
I will also be making contributions to LG592 the MA
Dissertation Preparation module, and LG595 the PhD Professional Development
Postgrad and undergrad
LG443Lexical Change in
the History of English. In term 1. Why do we need so many words? Why is a sandwich
so called? What have dough, fiction and paradise in common
historically? Why does book have a regular plural, but not foot?
In Middle English it could be spelt fyssche...
what word is it today and why did it have so may letters then? What did control
apparently mean in 1713 when one could write: The Women never dare Controul or Dispute their Husbands Commands ... and how
has the meaning changed since? If you are interested in how and especially why
words change in the ways they do, this course is for you.
How to get hold of the
phonetic and Old English fonts to use with Word
A guide to entering data into SPSS, and some associated
things to get straight in your head before seeking advice from me on
analysis of the data. I offer general advice to anyone on quantitative
research methods, graphs, statistics, and use of SPSS.... but that is strictly
within the Department of Language and Linguistics here at Essex only...
and students, please, I don't expect to have to advise on things which you
could have attended one of my courses (LG575 above) and learnt how to do.
·Some stats and SPSS pointers on some specific technical
matters I am sometimes asked about but which are not covered in detail in my
courses. These may not all mean much unless you have some stats knowledge.
Since 1995, I have been Senior Lecturer in Applied Linguistics in the
Department of Language and Linguistics here at the University of Essex.
I have various taught modules described above,
and am involved in research with my many PhD students.
Currently I am semi-retired, so not taking new PhDs, but seeing out my existing
14 or so ones…
I originally graduated from ClareCollege, Cambridge with a degree in Classics, followed
by training as a teacher of English as a Second/Foreign Language at University of Wales Bangor, in the days of Prof. Frank
Palmer (just before he moved to Reading)
and Sidney Whitaker. During the course of that, I became interested in what was
then (1966) the relatively new and unknown subject of Linguistics, and was
taken on as a lecturer in the Dept of Linguistics at Bangor by the late Prof. Sharp. I stayed
there all through the period when Andrew Radford was Prof, developing my own
knowledge, teaching and research repertoire pretty much with the job: I am
particularly indebted to colleagues who in various ways assisted my development
- Carl James, Ken Albrow, Pete Garrett, the late
Michael Anthony, and others - and to all the many students who provided a sounding-board
for ideas. During that period I taught a very wide range of topics in
linguistics and applied linguistics, from Stratificational
Grammar to Vocabulary Teaching. I contributed regularly to the training of TEFL
teachers run by the Education Dept, and for some time ran the MA Applied
Linguistics and MA ESL/EFL.
In the early 90s I globetrotted, especially to Poland (TEMPUS
and the Far East, giving presentations and
training sessions mainly in the area of CALL, vocabulary teaching, and
learners' dictionaries. I have also spoken at BAAL and AILA, externalled a number of PhDs and MA schemes, and am on the
editorial board of the journal Language Awareness.
I had a long association with the ELT Dictionary section of Longman (now
part of Pearson Education) as consultant and member of their advisory panel Linglex (chaired by Professor the Lord Quirk). I have
especially been associated with work on the successive editions of the Longman
Dictionary of Contemporary English and its offspins,
and the Longman Language Activator. Over 98-99 I was working on editing
a mammoth opus, authored by Doug Biber, Geoff Leech, Stig Johansson and others, the Longman Grammar of Spoken
and Written English (420k words). This was the first comprehensive grammar
of English with large scale corpus based frequency information incorporated,
and describing separately the grammar of four major varieties of English,
including genuine conversation. It is rapidly becoming a standard work- it is
the classic complement/successor to the Quirk/Leech family of descriptive
I have two grown-up daughters, who have had no trouble resisting the
temptation to have anything to do with Linguistics or academia. One is a group
operational risk manager with Barclays; the other is in marketing research and
development. Since my wife died in 2004 I have been rebuilding my life and have
a new partner and family, consequent on which I am learning Portuguese
From Oct 2010 I am semi-retired so not taking any new supervisees. I
continue to teach some modules, help my existing supervisees to conclusion, and
hopefully will have the time to actually write something again at last…. I
still have a wealth of experience and (hopefully) wisdom to share, and am
taking up invitations to give short courses round the world (recently Greece
and Thailand)… especially student training in research methods (quantitative
and qualitative), stats with SPSS, and so forth.
My Research and Teaching
My main areas of research
and teaching interest are these:
teaching and use in EFL/ESL
dictionaries for learners of English and their use
in ESL/EFL - including reading, writing, testing, dictionary use and
vocabulary learning strategies
Research methods and
statistics in language research generally
I also have a lesser
language learning, especially use of word processing in ESL/EFL
linguistics - especially lexical change in the history of English
Lexical errors and
error correction; feedback
I have taught… but probably won’t again at Essex (but I am available for short
courses wordwide, esp. on research methods and
These I have previously taught, and though some of this
material is quite old (and unlikely to be updated). I leave it here in case it
is of any residual use to anyone!
give brief and in some cases extended information for you to use as you like.
But if the module is on this year taught by someone else, obviously you have to
follow what they say, not what I may say here! Do not confuse the two sources
Research Methods for ELT/AL in term 1. A friendly introduction to
formulating hypotheses, sampling, measuring, designing studies
etc.....and the basics of handing figures and making appropriate graphs
with the SPSS program. A must for anyone intending to gather data that
will produce numbers.
LG675-7-SPFurther Quantitative Research
Methods in Language Study in term 2. Follows on the above, covering
pretty well all the statistical techniques one might need for language
research, including ANOVA, Factor Analysis, Multiple Regression,
statistical approaches to reliability and item analysis... all with
practical hands-on SPSS tasks. Essential for any PhD with heavy
requirement for statistical analysis.
LG478 Computer Assisted Language Learning,
which is all about programmes and CDs that can be used in English
language teaching, uses of the internet, wordprocessing
etc. for language teaching, and how to evaluate them pedagogically, plus
electronic corpora of English and what teachers can use them for. Lots of
hands-on activity will improve your computer literacy.
LG445-6/7-AU Learner Perspectives on Vocabulary,
which introduces what I see as the key areas where research is furthering
our understanding of learners' lexis. This is my main research area for
§How they store vocab in the mental lexicon, and what and how much they
§How they deal with vocab, and especially the problems arising from lack of
knowledge of it, when reading and writing
§How they learn/acquire
vocabulary, both through 'natural absorption' and deliberate memory techniques.
oLG556 Vocabulary Teaching. We
consider in turn the major areas that a teacher of a second/foreign language
needs some familiarity with, primarily:
·What exactly is
vocabulary knowledge – the thing we want learners to acquire?
·How should we, or a coursebook or syllabus writer, select vocabulary for a
·How much vocabulary does a
learner need to know? And at what rate should it be introduced?
·How can the meaning of a
new word best be presented to learners? … and the form?
·What kinds of practice
materials, games, tasks etc. are available for vocabulary, and how can we
analyse them to see what aspects of vocabulary knowledge or fluency they are
really focussed on? Which might most effective in different teaching contexts?
·How can we best handle vocab in ‘production’ or ‘communicative’ tasks and in the
four skills more generally?
·How can we best test and
assess learners’ vocabulary?
·Should we not also be
teaching the learner self-help strategies for learning vocab,
and dealing with situations where they lack it? Then what are these
strategies and how can we teach them?
·Should we ban or encourage
dictionaries? What dictionaries?
My contribution to LG636-7-AUExplicitness in L2 Learning
in term 2. I do five sessions of this in the middle.
My contribution to
LG561 Reading. You can see my powerpoints.
My contribution to
LG527 Language Teaching, on Vocabulary teaching. You can see my powerpoints.
oLG290-5-SP Investigating Language
Team Project. This new second year module never ran due to lack of takers….
Gather original data to answer aninteresting question in language in a team. Learn data gathering skills.
Tick some boxes for developing transferable skills thatyou may well not have had a chance to
develop/use in any other modules. It is paired with CR700,a new Careers
Development module from the University to be taken in the Autumn term.
I seem to have published in some quite obscure places, not to say on some
quite obscure topics! If anyone is really dying to read one of my publications
and genuinely can't get hold of it, do please email me and I will try to supply
Feb 1995. Quantifying Language. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters (pp298). This is all about
ways people try to measure linguistic variables in all kinds of areas (applied
linguistics, child language, sociolinguistics...) - elicitation,
questionnaires, tests.... and how to turn the information into figures
Articles, reviews and other oddments in date order
156 biographical entries on linguists and language-related personalities in Everyman's
Encyclopaedia 6th ed., Dent (1977)
'Lexical errors - a collector's guide', Bangor TeachingResource
Materials in Linguistics 1: 34-55 (1987)
'Vocabulary problems in communication: what determines the learner's choice
of strategy?', Bangor Teaching ResourceMaterials in Linguistics -75 (1987)
'Documenting folk etymological change in progress', EnglishStudies
69: 341-347 (1988)
Review of R. Carter, Vocabulary, in Journal of LiterarySemantics
18: 79-81 (1989)
'Language awareness and the computer', in ed. C. James and P. Garrett, Language
Awareness in the Classroom, Longman, pp227-241 (1991)
Invited review article 'Statistics in linguistics', in ed. B.J.Siegel, Annual Review of Anthropology, 20:
Review of H.Seliger and E.Shohamy,
Second Language ResearchMethods, in British Association for
Applied LinguisticsNewsletter 39 (1991)
'Vocabulary rate in coursebooks - living with an
unstable lexical economy', Proceedings of 5th Symposium on the Descriptionand/or Comparison of English and Greek, AristotleUniversity,
'Trends in Greek-English contrastive analysis: two recent studies', Proceedings
of 5th Symposium on the Description and/orComparison of English and
Greek, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki:
'Cluster analysis in the study of language variation - a review and an
example', Bangor Research Papers in Linguistics 3: 55-88 (1991)
'Booms and slumps in the lexical economy of a course: matching supply and
demand', Bangor Research Papers in Linguistics 3: 43-54 (1991)
With P. Garrett, C. James, Y. Griffiths. 'Effects of mother tongue use in
the second language classroom on the writing performance and attitudes of
bilingual UK schoolchildren: an experimental study', Bangor Research Papers
in Linguistics 3: 1-18 (1991)
With P. Garrett, C. James, Y. Griffiths. 'Scoring for content in
transactional writing: from atomisation to audience awareness', Bangor
Research Papers in Linguistics 3: 19-29 (1991)
Review of J.Sinclair, Corpus, Concordance,
Collocation, in Language Awareness 1: 61-65 (1992)
With P. Garrett, C. James, Y. Griffiths. 'Evolution of a coding scheme for
content in transactional writing: from atomisation to audience awareness', Proceedings
of the 10th International Conference of Applied Linguistics: Evaluation and Assessment,
Aristotle University Thessaloniki (GALA Bulletin 6)
With G. Ipsiladis. 'An evaluation of CALL
programs'. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Applied
Linguistics: Evaluation and Assessment, Aristotle University Thessaloniki (GALA Bulletin 6) (1992)
'Folk etymology and the parallelism of lexical processes', Bangor
Research Papers in Linguistics 4 (1992)
With P.Garrett, Y.Griffiths,
C.James. 'Differences and similarities between and
within bilingual settings: some British data', Language Culture and
Curriculum 5: 99-116 (1992)
'The conceptual map of English'. Invited contribution to the frontmatter of The Longman Language Activator,
Review of P.Arnaud and H.Béjoint,
Vocabulary and AppliedLinguistics, in Applied Linguistics
14: 313-315 (1993)
With G. Ypsiladis and C.James.
'Communication failures in persuasive writing: towards a typology', Yearbook
of EnglishStudies 3: 173-193. Aristotle University School of
English, Thessaloniki (1993)
With P.Garrett, Y.Griffiths,
C.James. 'Bilingual settings in Wales and in England:
an investigation of similarities and differences', Bangor Research Papers in
Linguistics 6 (1993)
With C.James, P.Garrett,
Y.Griffiths. 'Welsh bilinguals' English spelling: an
error analysis', Journal of Multilingual andMulticultural
Development 14: 287-306 (1993)
With P.Garrett, Y.Griffiths,
C.James. 'Mother tongue in the second language
classroom'. In ed. A. Kakouriotis. Proceedings of
the 7th International Symposium on English and Greek, Aristotle University
School of English, Thessaloniki: 76-93 (1993)
Invited contribution 'Second language pedagogy - vocabulary', in ed. R.
Asher et al., The Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics, Oxford: Pergamon Press (1994)
With G. Ypsiladis. 'Evaluating computer assisted
language learning from the learner's point of view'. In ed. D. Graddol and J. Swann, Evaluating Language, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters (1994) pp62-74.
Invited chapter 'Writing and Spelling - The View from Linguistics', in ed.
G. Brown and N. Ellis, Handbook of Spelling: Theory, Process and
Intervention, Chichester: John Wiley (1994) pp51-71.
With C. James and G. Ypsiladis. 'Cross-cultural
correspondence'. World Englishes 13: 325-340
With P.Garrett, Y.Griffiths,
C.James. 'Use of the mother-tongue in second language
classrooms: an experimental investigation of effects on the attitudes and
writing performance of bilingual UK schoolchildren'. Journal of Multilingual
and Multicultural Development 15: 371-383 (1994).
'What's new about word frequency?' Longman Language Review 1: 9-11
'Making the best of the pocket TL>NL dictionary when reading'. In ed. M. Bobran,
Zeszyty Naukowe WyzszejSzkoly
Pedagogicznej wRzeszowie 17, Seria Filologiczna: Jezykoznawstwo 2, Rzeszów: WSP Press (April
200 language usage notes in ed. D Summers Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English (3rd ed) (April 1995).
'Why shouldn't monolingual dictionaries be as easy to use as bilingual
ones?' Longman Language Review 2: 6-9 (1995).
'New Light on English Vocabulary from Corpora'. Proceedings of the 1994
ELLAK International Symposium. The English Language and Literature
Association of Korea (Feb 1995) pp21-51.
With P.Garrett, Y.Griffiths,
C.James. 'The development of a scoring scheme for
content in transactional writing'. Language and Education 9: 179-193
Review of P. Procter (ed) Cambridge International Dictionary of English,
in Language Awareness 4: 173-176 (1995)
With C. Gitsaki. 'What is the advantage of private
instruction? The example of English vocabulary learning in Greece'. System
24(1): 117-127 (June 1996).
'Strategies for pocket bilingual dictionary use when writing: facing up to
reality'. Essex Research Reports in Linguistics 11: 1-25 (Mar 1996).
'Vocabulary Reference Works in Foreign Language Learning' in ed N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy Vocabulary: Description,
Acquisition and Pedagogy (pp279-302). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press
'Dictionary use in reception' International Journal of Lexicography
12:1 (pp13-34) 1999
with S. Al-Hazmi. 'The effect of peer feedback
versus self-assessment on the quality and revision of compositions
word-processed by Arab ESL learners' (pp24). In ed. Pennington, M., Writing
in an Electronic Medium: Research with Language Learners. Houston, Texas: Athelstan 1999.
You will notice that I haven’t published much recently. This is due partly
to my bereavement, when I was off for almost a year, but mainly to the pressure
of PhD supervision, which leaves no time to work on publications based on the
often excellent research which we produce.
My Research and PhD
Note I am now semi-retired and not taking new supervisees at Essex.
My PhDs work within the realm of English as a second/foreign language
research or applied linguistics. Hopefully sooner or later most of their work
will produce publications. I have attached emails and, where possible, websites
of the key individuals for anyone interested to follow up in more detail: the
account here is only intended to give a rough idea of the area of the work -
much of it has much more detail, specific hypotheses and so forth. Many involve
a combination of qualitative (esp. 'think aloud') and quantitative methods,
related to strategies which students are more or less aware of. The outline
below includes both current and past PhD students (the latter marked C for
·My Core area of interest: vocabulary in EFL
Vocabulary learning strategies and factors affecting them.
What is the difference between the conscious strategies used by Japanese
learners in Japan and those at a Japanese school in the UK, where they
are in a TL environment? (Dr Taichi Nakamura C). What differences do we find
in the strategies reported by Saudi Arabian learners of different levels
in school and university, male and female? Are there distinct types of
learner who use different profiles of strategies unrelated to those
variables? (Dr Mofareh Al-Qahtani
C). It is often tacitly implied that there are certain strategies that
are universally 'good', but a neglected angle is the effect of a
learner's personality on what strategies they use and feel happy with or
are suited to. Dr Alfredo Marin C looked into one such personality
variable…. Extraversion.SalahAlyami has just begun to look at effects of
gender and year of study on the vocab learning
strategies of Saudi university English majors.
One specific strategy, the keyword memory method. Some say
this strategy will not work with Chinese learners of English because
Chinese and English are so different, but the method relies on spotting
similarities between words in the two languages. This is being looked at
in depth with Chinese university students by Henry Zhiqing
Yang, in relation to variables such as whether the keyword is given
or self-generated, whether immediate or delayed retention is tested, etc.
Strategies for learning idioms. Theseinvolve the successive phasesof: spotting that a sequence of words
in a text IS in fact an idiom (identification), figuring out what it
means (code-breaking/comprehension/discovery), and remembering it
Dominguez in Mexico and EireneKatsarou in
Training in vocabulary learning strategies. What strategies
do Thai learners of English most need to help retain new vocab (ones which they are not already using) ....
and can teaching of those vocab learning
strategies be effective? (Dr IssariyaTassana-ngam
Vocabulary teaching. What aspects of the teaching methods or
the materials or the syllabus or indeed the learner contribute most to
the lack of success of Saudi schoolchildren in learning a sound basic
vocabulary by the end of school? In fact their interest turned out to be
high, but there were aspects of their learning strategies and the
teaching materials that let them down, and poor backwash from the
exams... (Dr Saad
Al-Akloby C). Another scenario: what is
vocabulary teaching actually like in classes for young learners... in
Taiwan? How much does it differ between different ages of students and
locations of school (city/country)? And does it have the features that
pundits writing about teaching young learners approve of? (Dr Serena Liang
Vocabulary test-taking strategies. What 'test-taking
strategies' do Saudi learners of English use when taking vocabulary tests
of the common ‘gap in a sentence with 4 multiple choice options’ type? Do
they differ between local teacher made test items and professionally made
ones? (Dr KhaledAddamegh; website
C). Complementing this, Abdullah AlFraidan is going on to look at the difference
between strategies used for two other very common vocab
test types in Saudi Arabia, the cloze text with multiple open choice
gaps, and the set of sentences, each with a gap, to be filled from one
common list of possible fillers.
ESP vocabulary and testing and reading. Carlota Alcantar
is researching a neglected ESP area, Tourism, making her own corpus of
Tourism-related texts and identifying the words and phrases that are
distinctively frequent in that corpus compared with general English. From
this she is making a test of tourism vocab in
order to see if her students in Mexico on a Tourism BA read English
better if they know more tourism-related words, or if they just know more
high-frequency words of English.
Vocabulary storage in the mental lexicon. Grahame
Davies is looking at this via the traditional method of word
association, targeting emotion and non-emotion words in the minds of
native speakers of English and Portuguese learners of English. Are they organised
differently by native speakers and learners? Is there any difference
between native speakers who only speak English and those who have learnt
other languages? And do the non-natives organise the equivalent L1 words
differently from the L2 English words?
Vocabulary problems in writing and strategies to resolve them.
Vocab problems and their handling in general
during composition, including by dictionary use. What are the problems
that arise with vocab, and the strategies used
to handle word problems that we can find learners using when they write?
We have a neat classification into problems ... and their solutions...
where the writer can (a) think of no word, (b) can think of a word... but
it's partly unknown or wrong in some way, or (c) has thought of more than
one word and has to choose (Dr FatemehHemmati C).
Building on this, Dr Saul Santos
C looked more specifically at how learners in Mexico solve vocab problems when writing in L1 and L2… Use of
online dictionaries in writing figures in the research ofDr Vicky
Chun C in Korea, looking at the strategies used by writers to handle vocab problems when writing for different audiences
and on different topics (also following up on Hemmati).
Next to extend this line of research is AmelMeziane, looking at the problems and strategies
of Tunisian university students writing in L2 French and L3 English.
Dictionary use during writing. What happens when people use a
dictionary to deal with vocabulary problems when writing? Does it mean
they indulge in less 'avoidance' than if dictionaries were forbidden?
(Louise Katamine C).
Vocabulary problems in reading and strategies to resolve them.
These are often solved with ‘word attack strategies’. Lexical problems
are a key stumbling block for the L2 reader. One just never seems to know
enough vocab. We are pursuing a range of
questions about how learners deal with such problems. How do Greek
learners fare guessing words of Greek versus Latin origin, and does the
context influence them? Are they overconfident in their guesses when they
spot an English word as being Greek? (Dr Penny Vougiouklis
C). Why do Greek learners choose to use a dictionary to look up some
unknown words and not others? (Joanna Alexandri
C). To what extent can more or less complete beginners in Japan identify
and decode, on first meeting, English words that exist as cognates in Japanese,
due to borrowing? (Dr Emi Uchida
Word recognition in reading. Reading at the lowest level
involves word recognition. How this is effected by a reader depends in
part on the writing system that words are written in. It is often held
that Chinese characters will be recognised by overall visual shape while
English words may be decoded by letter-sound correspondences. However,
the part played by sound in recognition of Chinese characters is debated.
Dr Gloria Chwo
C explored whether there seems to be any difference in this respect among
Chinese readers of Chinese in Hong Kong and in Taiwan, due to the fact
that the latter are instructed in L1 reading with the aid of a form of
phonemic transcription of Chinese, while the former are not. Does this
also affect how they recognise English words?
Teaching vocabulary strategies for reading (word attack
strategies). Dr Mohammed AlSeweed C did a
project on this, showing the effects of strategy training on the use of
the strategies and reading success.
Vocabulary problems in speaking and strategies to resolve them.
The ways learners overcome vocab problems when
speaking… often called ‘communication strategies’. They have been rather
more studied than the equivalent strategies in writing (above).Sandra
Huang is looking at these among university student doing different
speaking tasks in Taiwan. Do their problems and strategies differ if
talking to a native speaker compared with another Taiwanese student?
Dictionary use in general and in reading.EidAlhaisoni is doing
a thorough survey by questionnaire and think aloud research to see what
dictionaries are used, for what, by Saudi learners of English at school
and university, and developing a new improved model of the lookup process
and its strategies – both good and bad – during reading tasks.Dictionary use is also a common
component in many of the reading and writing and vocab
learning studies mentioned above.
More broadly some of my
students work on strategies that are not specifically vocab-related
Learning strategies in general. FarajSawani is looking at these in Libya, in respect
of how their use relates to student motivation and autonomy.
Writing strategies in two languages. Much is written about
possible transfer of reading skills between L1 and L2. But what about
writing? In this case it is Moroccans writing in Arabic and English. The
findings about the possible influences between strategy use in the two
languages, by relatively better and less proficient writers, are somewhat
unexpected. Could writing strategies be transferred from L3 to L1? (Dr Latifa
El-Mortaji C). Similarities, or not,
between L1 and L2 recur in the research of MahaAlhaysony, comparing writing strategies in Arabic
L1 and English L2 in Saudi Arabian females at university, also in
relation to proficiency.
Factors affecting writing strategies and writing proficiency.
looking at the effects of writing apprehension and related constructs as
well as proficiency on the writing of Egyptian students.
Revision. What difference does it make if Arab students
revise their English compositions on their own, or with peer feedback?
With a checklist? On word processor? Maybe it depends on their
proficiency level... (Dr Sultan Al-Hazmi C)
Written errors, feedback and correction. A lot of composition
teaching round the world relies heavily on teacher correction of final
drafts of essays written by learners. What kinds of correction and other
feedback do students like? What do they get in Saudi Arabia? (Dr IbrahimAsiri C sadly
deceased). If Malaysian students have to self-correct errors marked by
the teacher in their composition, what strategies do they actually use...
and how successful are they at using a dictionary to produce a corrected
version? (Dr FadilahJasmani C)
Reading strategies and factors affecting them. What difference does
it make to the reading strategies Iranian university students use if they
are reading different types of text? If they are more or less familiar
with the content? If they are reading to summarise or to answer multiple
choice questions? And more..... (Dr HooshangYazdani C). While previously variables like level of
proficiency of the reader were often looked at, now it is realised that
purpose of reading may affect the strategies drastically as well. Tarek Al-Khaleefah is comparing what goes on when Saudis
read English (a) in classroom conditions, with dictionary, for discussion
afterwards and (b) in test conditions with no dictionary and for multiple
choice comprehension questions after.
Instruction in reading strategies. How are Thais taught
reading strategies for English at University, and what strategies do they
use? What effect would instruction in reading strategies make have? (Sumitra