CHUKCHEE

CHAPTER 3: NOUN INFLECTION, ADJECTIVES AND THE NOMINAL PHRASE

1. Noun inflection

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Case and number

1.2.1 Declensions

1.2.2 Morphophonemics

1.2.3 Examples of cases

1.3 Person agreement

2. Postpositions

3. Adjectives, possessives, relational forms

3.1 Adjectives

3.1.1 Formation and use

3.1.2 Incorporation

3.1.3 Degrees of comparison

3.2 Possessive forms of nouns

3.3 Relational adjectives

 

4. Numerals

4.1 Cardinals

4.2 Distributive

4.3 Ordinals

5. Determiners

6. Modifier Incorporation


1. Noun inflection

1.1 Introduction

Cases:

Absolutive

ABS

Ergative/Instrumental

ERG/INSTR

Locative

LOC

Ablative

ABL

Allative

ALL

Orientative

ORIENT

Comitative I, II

COM I, II

Designative

DESIG

Pronouns have a Dative case.

NB. No gender, even in pronouns. No definiteness marking.

Agreement features: no possessive agreement

Person agreement with predicative use


1.2 Case and number

1.2.1 Declensions

Skorik distinguishes three 'declensions' on the basis of whether number is distinguished just in the absolutive (1st declension), in all cases obligatorily (2nd declension) or in non-absolutive cases optionally (3rd declension). This distinction is clearly derived from animacy hierarchy considerations.

1st Declension: nonhumans. Sing. not distinct from plural except in Abs.

 

ilg- 'thong'

req- 'what?'

ynqen 'that'

Abs sg

ilg-yn

r?enut

ynqen

Abs pl

ilg-yt

r?enute-t

ynqena-t

Erg/Instr

ilg-e

req-e

ynqena-ta

Loc

ilg-yk

req-yk

ynqena-k

Abl

elg-epy

r?a-gypy

ynqena-jpy

All

elg-ety

raq-ety

ynqena-gty

Orient

ilg-ygjit

req-ygjit

ynqena-gjet

ComI

ge-ilg-e

ge-req-e

g-ynqena-ta

ComII

ga-elg-yma

ga-r?a-ma

g-ynqena-ma

Desig

ilg-u

req-u

ynqena-no

 

[NB: req- has regular alternation q Þ ?/_____C; see chapter two]

Note Erg = Instr

2nd Declension: human proper names, older relatives, pronouns referring to people.

Singular

 

mein 'who?'

ymmemy, 'mummy'

rintyn '(proper name)'

Abs

mein

ymmemy

rint-yn

Erg/Loc

mik-yne

ymmeme-ne

rint-yne

Abl

mek-gypy

ymmama-jpy

rent-epy

All

mek-yna

ymmama-na

rent-yna

Orient

mik-ygjit

ymmeme-gjit

rint-ygjit

Desig

mik-ynu

ymmeme-nu

rint-ynu

Plural

Abs

mik-ynti

ymmeme-nti

rint-ynti

Erg/Loc

mik-yryk

ymmeme-ryk

rint-yryk

Abl

mek-yrgypy

ymmama-rgypy

rent-yrgypy

All

mek-yryky

ymmama-ryky

rent-yryky

Orient

mik-yrygjit

ymmeme-rygjit

rint-yrygjit

Desig

mik-ynu

ymmeme-nu

rint-ynu

Role of Comitative cases taken over by postposition reen + Loc.

Note: Erg. = Loc.

3rd Declension: humans other than older relatives. May decline like 1st decl. nouns or take special plural forms similar to 2nd decl. for emphasis. Ex. tumg- 'friend'.

 

Sg

Pl

Sg

Pl

Abs

mein

mik-ynti

tumgytum

tumg-yt

Erg

mik-yne

mik-yryk

tumg-e

tumg-yryk

Loc

mik-yne

mik-yryk

tumg-yk

tumg-yryk

Abl

mek-gypy

mek-yrgypy

tomg-epy

tomg-yrgypy

All

mek-yna

mek-yryky

tomg-ety

tomg-yryky

Orient

mik-ygjit

mik-yrygjit

tumg-ygjit

tumg-yrygjit

Com

ga-meg-ma

ga-mek-yryma

ga-tomg-yma

ga-tomg-yryma

NB. Comitative case form exists but no Designative for mein.

Erg = Loc for mein, i.e. like 2nd declension, while Erg = Instr for tumgytum (1st declension).

Personal pronouns

Singular

 

1

2

3

Abs

gym

gyt

ytlon

Erg

gym-nan

gy-nan

y-nan

Loc

gym-yk

gyn-yk

yn-yk

Abl

gym-yka-jpy

gyn-yka-jpy

yny-ka-jpy

All

gym-yka-gty

gyn-yka-gty

yn-yka-gty

Dat

gym-yky

gyn-yky

yn-yky

Orient

gym-yke-gjit

gyn-yke-gjit

yn-yke-gjit

Com I

ge-gym-yke

ge-gyn-yke

g-yn-yke

Com II

ga-gym-ygma

ga-gyn-ygma

g-yn-ygma

Desig

gym-yku

gyn-yku

yn-yku

Plural

 

1

2

3

Abs

muri

Turi

ytri

Erg

mor-gynan

tor-gynan

yr-gynan

Loc

mur-yk

tur-yk

yr-yk

Abl

mor-yka-jpy

tor-yka-jpy

yr-yka-jpy

All

mor-yka-gty

tor-yka-gty

yr-yka-gty

Dat

mor-yky

tor-yky

yr-yky

Orient

mur-yke-gjit

tur-yke-gjit

yr-yke-gjit

Com I

ge-mur-yke

ge-tur-yke

g-yr-yke

Com II

ga-mor-ygma

ga-tor-ygma

g-yr-ygma

Desig

mur-yku

tur-yku

yr-yku


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1.2.2 Morphophonemics

Absolutive stem allomorphy. (Abs. sg. and pl. forms given.

Zero affixation:

Zero: weem 'river', weemyt; r?ew 'whale', r?ewyt; ate 'daddy' ate-nti; memyl 'seal', memylte.

Zero with reduction of final vowel: waly 'knife', walat; umqy 'polar bear', umqet;

With truncation of final stem vowel: uqqem 'plate', uqqemet; tewena 'oar', tewenaat; milut 'hare', milutet.

Stems ending in consonant clusters:

(i) epenthesis of y in sg.: qepyl 'ball', qeplyt; tytyl 'door', tytlyt; rytyn 'tooth', rynnyt; mimyl 'water', mimlyt.

(ii) truncation of final cons.: aween 'pasture', aweenwyt; yton 'exit', ytonwyt. [All Skorik's examples involve -nw].

(iii) vowel truncation then epenthesis: ceyl 'box', cenlet; erym 'boss', ermet; ekyk 'son', ekket.

Affixation.

(i) -(y)n/-n(y): kupre-n 'net'; ilg-yn 'thong', gytg-yn 'lake', renm-yn 'wall' (also ytlyg-yn 'father'); eg-ny (root, ej-) 'hill'.

(ii) -lgyn/-lgyyn/-ytlyyn: lele-lgyn 'glove' (>lili), melota-lgyn 'hare' (>milute-); myng-ylgyn 'hand'; w?ag-lyyn 'grass' (>w?ej-), mran-lyyn 'mosquito' (>mren-), aat-lynyn 'star' (>eet-); par-ytlyyn 'shoulder-blade'.

(iii) -y: titi-y 'needle', jara-y 'house', qora-y 'deer', kuke-y 'kettle'.

Reduplication: copy first CVC on to right edge.

(i) Full reduplication. Copying CVC syllable: stem for inflection is full reduplicated form. Eg. pipi 'ash', pipiyt; nymnym 'village', nymnymyt; liglig 'egg', ligligyt.

(ii) Partial reduplication. Copying first three segments (CVC): stem for inflection is unreduplicated stem. Eg. piepi 'falling snow', piet; nutenut 'land', nutet; milgymil 'match', milgyt; tirkytir 'sun', tirkyt; kyrgokyr 'willow bush', kyrgot; jil?ejil 'gopher', jil?et.

Reduplication is not found when the root is compounded. E.g. tumgytum 'friend', root tumg-, jic?emittumgyn 'brother' not *jic?emittumgytum).

Plural formation:

2nd declension -nti: rultynli-nti 'Rultenli and family/associates', ate-nte, 'daddies', ymmeqej-ynte 'mummies'.

1st/3rd declension -(y)t, -ti: jara-t 'houses', qaa-t 'deer', ekke-t 'sons', pojg-yt 'spears', tumg-yt 'friends', ja?jaq-yt 'seagulls', grep-yt 'songs'; memyl-te 'seals', milger-ti 'guns', ewysqet-ti, 'women', ococ-te 'masters', eg-ti 'hills' (>ej).

Excursus: Kin terms

2nd declension:

ate 'daddy', ymmemy 'mummy', yn?y 'older brother', epy 'granddad', epeqej 'grandma', jel?o 'uncle', ytcajqaj 'aunt'.

3rd declension:

ytlygyn 'father', ytla 'mother', mirgyn 'grandfather', ewmirgyn 'grandmother', yneel?yn 'older brother', ynjiw 'uncle' ytcaj 'aunt', ekyk 'son', eekyk 'daughter', ytlei 'younger brother', ytlywe 'grandson', jic?emittumgyn 'brother (of brother)', jic?emit 'brother (of sister)', cakyget 'sister (of brother)', cakettomgyn 'sister (of sister)'.


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1.2.3 Examples of cases

(for Absolutive, Ergative see chapter five)

Instrumental

(1)

tywayrkyn titi-te

 

I.sew needle-INSTR

 

'I sew with a needle'

(2)

cawcyw qaa-ta tylerkyn

 

chawchaw reindeer-INSTR travels

 

'The Chawchaw travels by reindeer'

(3)

umqete je-ge nenanmyqen memyl

 

polar.bear paw-INSTR kills seal

 

'The polar bear kills the seal with its paw'

Locative

(4)

memylte kupre-k gakwalenat

 

seals net-LOC got.caught

 

'The seals got caught in the net'

(5)

tilmyt enmy-k wak?og?at

 

eagles cliff-LOC sat

 

'The eagles sat on the cliff'

(6)

orgoor typelag?an jemrony-na

 

sledge I.left Yemron-LOC

 

'I left the sledge with Yemron'

Ablative

(7)

qaat mran-gypy gyntekw?et

 

deer mosquitoes-ABL ran

 

'The deer ran from the mosquitoes'

(8)

?ytwyqej ott-epy getejkylin

 

little.boat wood-ABL they.made

 

'They made the little boat from wood'

(9)

in?e mytekwenmyk gemalqoty-r-gypy

 

morning we.left Gemalqot-PL-ABL

 

'In the morning we left the Gemalqot family'

Allative

(10)

ytri ejmekw?et omqa-gty

 

they approached polar.bear-ALL

 

'They approached the polar bear'

(11)

?ytt?-ety geretlin qopalgyn

 

dogs-ALL they.brought meat

 

'They brought the dogs meat'

(12)

gym tylqytyk jatgory-ny

 

I went Yatgor-ALL

 

'I went to Yatgor (personal name)'

Orientative

(13)

iwinil?yt nypelqyntetqinet anqa-jpy ejy-gjit

 

hunters returned sea.ABL mountain-ORIENT

 

'The hunters returned from the sea orienting by the mountain'

(14)

epenin wala-g?et qytejkygyn

 

grandfather's knife-ORIENT make.it

 

'Make it like grandfather's knife'

(15)

eekket nywaeqenat ymmemery-gjit

 

little.girls sew mummies-ORIENT

 

'The little girls sew following their mummies' model'

Comitative I

(16)

luur jatjol ge-riquke-te penrytkog?at tykec?-ety

 

suddenly red.fox COM-arctic.fox-COMI rushed bait-ALL

 

'Suddenly the red fox with the arctic fox rushed to the bait'

(17)

riquke-te ga-jatol-a penrynenat pipiqylgyt

 

arctic.fox-ERG COM-red.fox.COMI attacked mice

 

'The arctic fox and the red fox attacked the mice'

Comitative II

(18)

milger ga-m?ame-ma nyjmetwaqen renmy-k

 

rifle COM-cartridge-COMII hangs wall.LOC

 

'A rifle with cartridges hangs on the wall'

(19)

tyjylyn ynaal?-ety k?eli ga-lele-ma

 

I.gave elder.brother-ALL cap COM-gloves-COMII

 

'I gave my elder brother a cap with gloves'

Designative

(20)

jyek wykwylgyn jarano nyperqen

 

in.mist rock yaranga.DESIG appeared

 

'In the mist the rock looked like a yaranga (tent)'

(21)

qynwer qejyqej r?ew-u gen?etlin

 

at.last whale.pup whale-DESIG became

 

'At last the whale pup grew up'

(22)

myttenynnyyn ekyk roptyn-o

 

we.called son Roptyn-DESIG

 

'We called our son Roptyn'

(23)

qergaw gymyky yn?en-u nitqin

 

Qergaw me.ALL elder.brother-DESIG is

 

'Qergaw is my elder brother'


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1.3 Person agreement

With nouns used as predicates:

 

mik- 'who?'

tumg- 'friend'

1.

mik-i-gym 'who am I?'

tumg-i-gym 'I am a friend'

2.

mik-i-gyt

tumg-i-gyt

3.

mein

tumgytum

'To have' = 'to be with'

1.

ge-req-i-gym

'what have I got?'

ga-qora-j-gym

'I have got (a) reindeer'

2.

ge-req-i-gyt

'what hast thou got?'

ga-qora-j-gyt

'Thou hast got (a) reindeer'

3.

ge-re?-lin

'what has s/he got?'

ga-qora-len

'S/he has got (a) reindeer'

1.

ge-req-y-muri

'what have we got?'

ga-qora-more

'We have got (a) reindeer'

2.

ge-req-y-turi

'what have you got?'

ga-qora-tore

'You have got (a) reindeer'

3.

ge-re?-linet

'what have they got?'

ga-qora-lenat

'They have got (a) reindeer'

 

Also found appositively (quite common textually):

(24)

gyt, mewet-ine-jgyt ekke-jgyt, qyntoge

 

you, Mewet-POSS-2sg son-2sg, leave

 

'You, Mewet's son, leave'


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2. Postpositions

No PREpositions. Postpositions mainly derived from adverbs. Usually take Loc. case.

reen 'with'

qaca 'near'

gyrgoca 'over' (cf. gyrgol 'upper part, top')

ewyca 'under' (iwtyl 'bottom, underside')

?ytt?yjoca 'before, in front of' (?ytt?yjol 'front')

jaacy 'behind' (jaal 'back')

Examples:

(25)

inqej nynnyyttyqin ytlyg-yk reen

 

boy fished father-LOC with

 

'The boy fished with the father'

(26)

ytlon qonpy nywak?otwaqen mur-yk qaca

 

he all-time sits us-LOC near

 

'He sits near us all the time'

(27)

luur yr-yk gyrgoca pintyqetg?i gacgamkyn

 

suddenly him-LOC above appeared flock

 

'Suddenly above him there appeared a flock of birds'

(28)

ynpyew-yk ewyca turnelgyn gatwalen

 

old-woman-LOC under new-hide was

 

'Under the old woman there was a new hide'

(29)

qytwetcage tumg-yk ?ytt?yjoca

 

stand friend-LOC in-front-of

 

'Stand in front of your friend'

(30)

ej-yk jaacy wytretg?i nymnym

 

hill-LOC behind appeared village

 

'Behind the hill there appeared a village'

Inflected postpositions

(31)

gytgy-k qaca-jpy ?ireg?i ilwylu

 

lake-LOC near-ABL rushed wild-deer

 

'Wild deer ruched out from by the lake'

(32)

gacgamkyn riekwetyrkyn ejy-k girgoca-gty

 

flock flew hill-LOC over-ALL

 

'The flock of birds were flying towards the other side of the hill'

(33)

tirky-k ewyca-gj?et wytretg?i riene

 

sun-LOC under-ORIENT appeared plane

 

'A plane appeared, flying a course beneath the sun'

Adverbs and nouns used as postpositions:

cymce 'near'

rymagty 'further on, beyond'

wytwyr 'interval'

(34)

wykwy-k wytgyr-gypy nyntoqen pycyc?yqej

 

stones-LOC between-ABL flowed water-stream

 

'A stream flowed from between the stones'


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3. Adjectives, possessives, relational forms

3.1 Adjectives

3.1.1 Formation and use

Formed by circumfix n- ... -qin. Inflect for P/N when used predicatively. Don't usually agree in case/number when used attributively. (See also under Incorporation).

'Conjugation' (predicative forms. - Cf. predicative use of nouns).

Root:

erme 'strong'

gtam 'precise'

1sg

n-erme-j-gym

ny-gtam-e-gym

2sg

n-erme-j-gyt

ny-gtam-e-gyt

3sg

n-erme-qin

ny-gtam-qen

1pl

n-erme-muri

ny-gtam-more

2pl

n-erme-turi

ny-gtam-tore

3pl

n-erme-qin-et

ny-gtam-qen-at

 

(I:374) Adjectives are often found in an analytic construction with the -l?- form of the verb wak 'to be'. The adjective is in what is formally an Allative suffix attached to the adjective root.

mikyri wal?yn 'what kind of, what like?'

armagty wal?yn 'strong'

The -l?- form of an adjectival root can also be used as a predicative or attributive modifier. See under the appropriate section.

These all appear in the full set of case/number forms.

3.1.2 Incorporation

Adjective roots regularly incorporate into the noun stems which they modify. See section below on incorporation.

3.1.3 Degrees of comparison

Comparative form: add -* to stem. The comparative is found in the analytic construction with wal?yn.

arma- wal?yn 'stronger'

jylqy- wal?yn 'faster'

Source of comparison is in Loc.:

(35)

ryrky umqe-k arma- wal?yn

 

walrus polar.bear-LOC stronger-COMPAR is

 

'The walrus is stronger than the polar bear'

Comparison can be modified by various prefixes (Skorik gives most of these in their dominant form because that's the form they appear in when in construction with dominant suffix -. I give them in their basic forms):

mec/mac- 'fairly, cik- 'comparatively', lygi- 'significantly', *kyt- 'very', pytqy- 'extremely', j?a- 'a good deal (more)', ynan 'most'

mac-elg-y-

'a little whiter'

cek-elg-y-

'comparatively whiter'

lyg-elg-y-

'significantly whiter'

kyt-elg-y-

'much whiter'

pytq-elg-y-

'far whiter'

j?-elg-y-

'a good deal whiter'

ynan-elg-y-

'whitest'

Some examples:

(36)

tumge kylgenninent jyq-ety wa-l?-yt qaa-t

 

friend harnessed quick-ALL be-l?-ABS.PL reindeer-ABS.PL

 

The friend harnessed the quick reindeer'

(37)

jic?emittumgyn qytg?i kyt-jyq-y- wa-l?-ety qaa-gty

 

brother went.after more-quick-COMPAR be-l?-ALL reindeer-ALL

 

'The brother went after the quicker reindeer'

(I:423) Degree prefixes also attach to ordinary adjectives in their n-...-qin form: mec/mac- 'a little', cig/ceg- 'comparatively', *kyt- 'fairly', nylgi- 'very'.

mec-n-ikw-i-gym 'I am fairly tall'

cig-ny-in'qin 'he is comparatively young'

kyn-ny-gynryr-more 'we are fairly keen-sighted'

nylge-ny-lymal-qenat 'they are very trusting'

[The cig/ceg- and kyn- forms given by Skorik here are phonologically conditioned allomorphs of cik/cek- and kyt- given above. Note that the glosses for kyt- are slightly different in the two accounts.]


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3.2 Possessive forms of nouns

(I:225f) Used attributively or predicatively

-(n)in added to stem: mik-yn(in) 'whose?', reqin 'of what?'

ytlygin waly

'father's knife'

?ytt?in renre

'the dog's food'

w?ejin kinmyqej

'the grass's root'

 

-nin allomorph suffixed to singular stem of Proper Nouns, interrogative and indefinite pronouns, common nouns referring to older relatives, -in found elsewhere:

(38)

ge-kelwi-nine-tumg-e

 

COM-Kelwi-POSS-friend-COM.I

 

'with Kelwi's friend(s)'

(39)

rult-y-nin 'of Rultyn'

(40)

ge-inqej-ine-tumg-e

 

COMI-boy-POSS-friend-COMI

 

'with the boy's friend(s)'

More common form of interrog: mikyn

Added to plural stems of human nouns:

 

(41) 

girl-POSS/girl-PL-POSS (ball)

 

'The girl's/girls' ball'

Not possible with non-humans (I:227)

(42)

rewymrew-in rygryg l?eley tegnilgyqin

 

partridge-POSS feathers in.winter completely.white

 

'In winter, a partridge's feathers are complete white'

Cf. anthropomorphic use (I:227):

(43)

gymnan wanewan tegjeu mylgyn ?ytt?y-rg-in wagyrgyn - ikw?i ?iny

 

I.ERG NEG want AUX dog-PL-POSS life - said wolf

 

' "I don't want the dogs' life" said the wolf'

Implies inalienable possession or individual level predication when applied to inanimates (Skorik I:249):

(44) weem-in pyc?yc?yn 'the river's flow, current', but not

(45) *weem-in wykwylgyn 'the river's rock, the rock in the river'

With animates can express alienable or inalienable possession:

(46)

?ytt?-in lewyt, ?innicgyn

 

dog-POSS head, collar

 

'The dog's head, collar'

Can also express material out of which thing is made (note that this appears to be a predicative use of the possessive form):

(47)

murg-in ?ytw?et utt-in

 

our boat tree-POSS

 

'Our boat is made out of wood'

Note that the possessive form has to be distinguished from the relational adjective form in -kin, e.g. (Skorik I:286, fn. 213):

uttuut 'tree':

ott-y-wytwyt, 'tree leaf'

utt-in wytwyt 'the tree's leaf' or 'leaf made from wood (e.g. carved)'

utt-y-kin wytwyt 'the leaf on the tree'

Possessives don't agree in case/number with head:

(48)

inqegti nyteyc?etqinet wak ynpynacg-yrg-en jarak

 

boys like to.be old.man-PL-POSS house.LOC

 

'The boys like to be in the old men's house'

(cf also Skorik I:229)

Incorporates obligatorily in Com. I, II (like other modifiers):

(49)

?aacekyt qytg?et gytgety ga-ynpynacg-yrg-ena-kopra-ma

 

youths went to.lake COM-old.man-PL-POSS-net-COM.II

 

'The youths went to the lake with the old men's net' (I:226)

(50)

ge-mik-y-nine-tumg-e

 

COM-who-POSS-friend-COM.I

 

'With the friend(s) of which person?'

(51)

ge-mik-y-rg-ine-tumg-e

 

COM-who-PL-POSS-friend-COM.I

 

'With the friend(s) of which people?'

(52)

ga-mek-y-nena-melgar-ma

 

COM-who-POSS-gun-COM.II

 

'With the gun(s) of which person?'

(53)

ga-mek-y-rg-ena-melgar-ma

 

COM-who-PL-POSS-gun-COM.II

 

'With the gun(s) of which people?' (I:228)

Incorporates optionally when modifying N in any case except Absolutive:

(54)

mik-y-nine-tumg-yk nytkiwigyt

 

who-POSS-friend-LOC you.spend.night

 

'At whose friend's house are you spending the night?'

(55)

rult-y-nine-tumg-yk nytwajgym

 

Rultyn-POSS-friend-LOC I.am

 

'I am at Rultyn's friend's house' (I:232)

Abs. pl. (and oblique case) agreement possible when head is elided:

(56)

mik-y-n(in) jel?o-nte rult-y-nine-t, inqej-ine-t

 

who-POSS grandfathers Rultyn's, the boy's

 

'whose grandfathers are they?' 'Rultyn's, the boy's'

(57)

mik-y-rg-in ewyl?-y-k gyr?oog?e

 

who-PL-POSS herd-LOC calve.start

 

'In whose herd did the calving start?'

 

rult-y-rg-ine-k, mirg-y-rg-ine-k

 

Rultyn-PL-POSS-LOC, grandfather-PL-POSS-LOC

 

'In the Rultyn family's, in grandfathers''

(58)

ge-mik-y-nine-mirg-e ge-inqej-ine-me

 

COM who-POSS-grandfather-COM.I COM-boy-POSS-COM.I

 

'with whose grandfather?' 'with the boy's' (I:242)

Otherwise agreement is rare. Note: genuine case inflected forms don't incorporate, and don't take adjective-like agreement morphology, which means that it is incorrect to think of the possessive form as a kind of genitive case.

Predicative use:

(59)

otqen qepyl eekkeqej-in/eekkej-yrg-in

 

this ball girl's girls'

 

'This ball is the girl's/the girls'' (I:225)

(60)

muri mik-y-rg-y-ine-muri winretyl?y-muri

 

we who-PL-POSS-1pl helper-1pl

 

'whose(PL) helper are we?'

(61)

turi mewet-y-rg-ine-turi

 

you Mewet-PL-POSS-1pl

 

'you are the Mewet family's (helpers)'

(62)

muri-ym ymyl?o-rg-ena-more qut-y-rg-ine-muri

 

we-FOC all-PL-POSS-1pl other-PL-POSS-1pl

 

'but we are (the helpers) of all the others'


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3.3 Relational adjectives

(Skorik I:268-280) Generally used with inanimates, signals alienable possession or stage level predication -kin(e):

(63)

weem-kine-t wykw-yt

 

river-REL-PL rock-PL

 

'the river's rocks, the rocks in the river'

(64)

emnu-kin gatle

 

tundra-REL bird

 

'a bird from the tundra'

Possible with animates only in comparative constructions (in locative, orientative) (Skorik I:268 fn. 205)

(65)

eekkeqej-in k?eli inqej-kine-k tay wal?yn

 

girl-POSS cap boy-REL-LOC better is

 

'The girl's cap is better than the boy's'

(66)

raq-orwy-gjet retejkyyn

 

wh-sledge-ORIENT you.will.make

 

'Which sledge will you take as a model?'

(67)

igyr ekkeqeg-ti inqej-kine-k tay gemigciretlinet

 

today girl-PL boy-REL-PL-LOC better have.worked

 

'Today the girls have worked better than the boys'

Syntax - basically similar to Possessive form. Usually agrees for number with Absolutive case head:

(68)

weem-kin wykwyn, weem-kine-t wykwyt

 

river(-PL) rock(s)

 

'the river's/rivers' rocks'

Comitative cases always incorporate (Skorik I:270):

(69)

?itu?it rieg?i ga-gytg-y-kena-galga-ma

 

goose flew.away COM-lake-REL-bird-COM.II

 

'The goose flew away with the bird(s) from the lake'

Other oblique cases usually incorporate:

(70)

aqa-kena-gel-gypy al?eqatg?e ?ytt?yn

 

sea-REL-ice.floe-ABL swam dog

 

'From the ice floe in the sea swam a dog'

(71)

r?e-ilg-yk kupre-kine-ilg-yk

 

wh-strap-LOC net-REL-strap-LOC

 

'On which strap? On the strap from the net'

(72)

req-ine-ilg-yk kupre-kine-ilg-yk

 

wh-REL-strap-LOC net-REL-strap-LOC

 

'On which strap? On the strap from the net'

(73)

meka-kena-gelgel-gypy aqa-kena-gelgel-gypy

 

where-REL-ice.floe-ABL sea-REL-ice.floe-ABL

 

'From the ice floe which is where? From the ice floe which is in the sea'

Predicative use (Skorik I:275f):

(74)

tite-kine-jgyt ele-kine-jgyt

 

when-REL-2sg summer-REL-2sg

 

'Of what time are you?' 'I am of the summer'

(75)

gyt-ym, wopqa-jgyt, mie-kine-jgyt

 

you-FOC, elk-2sg, where-REL-2sg

 

'You, elk, where are you from?'

Has inflectional and derivational uses: derivational when deriving forms of non-nouns, function words, or indeclinables:

wulqytwin 'evening'

wulqytwi-kin 'of the evening'

cinit '(ones)self'

cinit-kin '(ones)own'

miky 'where?'

mike-kin 'of where?'

meko 'from where?'

meko-kin 'pertaining to the person/thing from where?'

tite 'when?'

tite-kin 'pertaining to the person/thing of what time?'

ajwe 'yesterday'

ajwe-ken 'yesterday's'


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4. Numerals

4.1 Cardinals

Chukchee has a vigesimal system.

1

ynnen (e1)

21

qlikkin ynnen parol

2

ireq

22

qlikkin ireq parol

3

yroq

23

qlikkin yroq parol

4

yraq

24

qlikkin yraq parol

5

*mytlyyn

25

qlikkin mytlyyn parol

6

ynnanmytlyyn

26

qlikkin ynnanmytlyyn parol

7

er?amytlyyn

27

qlikkin er?amytlyyn parol

8

yr?omytlyyn

28

qlikkin yr?omytlyyn parol

 

amyrootken

29

qlikkin yr?amytlyyn parol

9

yr?amytlyyn

30

qlikkin myngytken parol

 

qonacgynken

35

qlikkin kylgynken parol

10

*myngytken

40

ireqqlikkin

11

myngytken

45

ireqqlikkin mytlyyn parol

12

myngytken

50

ireqqlikkin myngytken parol

13

myngytken

60

yroqqlekken

14

myngytken

70

yroqqlekken myngytken parol

15

*kylgynken

80

yraqqlekken

16

kylgynken

90

yraqqlekken myngytken parol

17

kylgynken

100

mytlyqlekken

18

kylgynken

200

myngytqlekken

19

kylgynken

300

kylgynqlekken

20

qlikkin

400

qlikqlikkin

Traditionally, counting didn't go beyond 400.

Note interrogative numeral t?er/t?ar

Forms for 'two', 'three', 'four', 'five' have combining forms iren-, yron-, yran-, mytly- resp. with other numerals, and 'two', 'three', 'four' have ire-, yro-, yra- in other combinations (e.g. with person agreement affixes). Combining forms for the numerals ending in -kin/ken remove that ending.

There are two forms for 'eight', 'nine'. The transparently formed '3 + 5', '4 + 5' are perhaps less frequent than the alternatives (I:388) which etymologically mean 'relating only to three (fingers on the other hand)' and 'one (finger) at its side'.

Person marking: take person suffixes when used predicatively or appositively (except for ynnen 'one'): (turi) t?er-turi 'how many of you are there?' (muri) iremuri/er?amytlymore/amyrootmore/ireqqlikkin myngytken yroq parolmore/cigt?ermuri 'There are two/seven/eight/fifty-seven /a (fair) number of us'

3rd person forms have special plural suffix -rgeri: t?er-y-rgeri 'How many of them are there?' kylgynken yroq parol-y-rgare 'There are eighteen of them'.


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4.2 Distributive

Circumfix em-/am-...-jut/jot.

em-t?et-jut 'how many each?' [Russian: 'po skol'ko?']

am-ynnanmytlyn-jot 'six each'

em-cig-t?et-jut 'a (fair) number each'

em-qlikkin ynnen parol-jot 'twenty-one each' [NB vowel harmony!]

(76)

amqyn-gelytkyny-k nyrowtytwaqenat

 

each-ice.floe-LOC lay

(77)

em-qlikkin kylgynken ynnen parol-jot memyte

 

DIST-20-15 one and-DIST seal.PL

 

'On each ice floe there lay thirty-six seals'


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4.3 Ordinals

Formed by adding -qew/qaw (to combining form)

ireqqliq-qew 'fortieth'

myngytken ynnen parol-qaw 'eleventh'

Attributive use as with cardinal numerals:

(78)

ynnen-qew jaray 'the first house'

(79)

myngytkan ynnen parol-qaw-y-t lilit 'the eleventh gloves'

[NB plural agreement]

Incorporate with oblique cases as for cardinals:

(80)

yro-qaw-nalg-a 'by the third hide'

(81)

ga-er?a-mytly-qaw-qajoo-ma

 

COM-three-five-ORD-calf-COM.II

 

'with the seventh calf'

With null nominal head (or in nominalized form), they take case suffixes (like cardinals):

(82)

t?ar-qaw-orw-y-k nytwaqen

 

which-ORD-sledge-LOC it.is

 

'On which sledge (in order) is it?'

(83)

yro-qaw-y-k

 

three-ORD-LOC

 

'On the third'

Predicate usage - as for cardinals, except that they can take plural marking.

(84)

t?er-qew

'Which one is he?'

 

mytly-qaw

'He's the fifth'

(85)

t?er-qew-i-gym

'Which one am I?'

 

myngytken ynnen parol-qaw-e-gyt

'You're the eleventh'

Possessive and relative forms of ordinals

(86)

ire-qew-inqej-in ytlygyn 'the father of the second boy'

(87)

ire-qew-in ytlygyn 'the father of the second'

(88)

ga-era-qaw-ena-cakett-a

 

COM-two-ORD-POSS-sister-COM.I

 

'with the sister of the second one'

Relative forms almost identical in meaning to ordinary ordinals:

(89)

amyroot-qaw-ken wykwyn

 

eight-ORD-REL stone

 

'the eighth stone (in relation to a row of other specific stones)'


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5. Determiners

Chukchee seems to lack a determiner system as such. A number of quantifiers appear as incorporated elements or as prefixes (depending on how you chose to analyse them). Overall, Chukchee illustrates the A-type quantifier system as opposed to the D-type.

Skorik discusses these under noun derivation. See chapter ten, section 1.


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6. Modifier Incorporation

This is the most productive type of incorporation in the language (see Spencer 1995 for further discussion; also Payne 1993).

Chukotkan languages permit incorporation of:

Typologically, modifier incorporation by noun heads is probably rather different from noun incorporation. In Chukchee it has an important role in discourse structure (an unincorporated modifier bears a certain amount of focus so that incorporation is the unmarked state) and is obligatory under certain circumstances (e.g. with the Comitative case forms, which have a prefixal element). Moreover, although noun incorporation is being lost from the language under influence of Russian, adjective incorporation shows now signs of being lost (see discussion in Spencer, 1995). Finally, note that modifier incorporation is found in languages which lack proper noun incorporation. Thus, in Germanic we often find Adj-Noun compounds of the blackbird type, while in Latvian even some determiners (possessives) can be compounded with nouns (e.g. from musu 'our' mus-dien-as 'our-day-GE 'of our day, i.e. modern').

 

 

  

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This page created on 11 July 1999.

Last modified 16 July 1999.