CHUKCHEE

CHAPTER 4: VERB INFLECTION (Finite conjugation)

1. Introduction

1.1 Summary of verbal categories

2. Finite conjugation

2.1 Intransitives

2.1.1 Declarative mood

2.1.2 Imperative

2.1.3 Conditional

2.2 Transitives

 

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1. Introduction

1.1 Summary of verbal categories

Finite forms:

Non-finite forms:

This chapter provides basic paradigms for finite forms of verbs. The rich set of non-finite forms are dealt with in chapter seven. The various tense/aspect categories are here given very notional labels. For detailed discussion of the semantics of these forms see Nedjalkov et al. 1984.

Only the active paradigms are given here. The two antipassive paradigms are presented in chapter five (as far as their agreement and tense/mood/aspect markers are concerned they don't differ significantly from the intransitive paradigms given here.)

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2. Finite conjugation

2.1 Intransitives

2.1.1 Declarative mood

Past I: type of aorist (implies completed action)

Examples: kytgyntat-yk 'to run' req-yk 'to do what?'

Singular

1.

ty-kytgyntat-yk

ty-req-yk

2.

kytgyntat-g?e

r?e-g?i

3.

kytgyntat-g?e

r?e-g?i

Plural

1.

myt-kytgyntat

myt-req

2.

kytgyntat-tyk

r?e-tyk

3.

kytgyntat-g?a-t

r?e-g?e-t

[Alternative 1sg forms: ty-kytgyntat-g?a-k, ty-r?e-g?e-k]

Present II: progressive aspect

 

1sg

ty-kytgyntat-yrky-n

ty-req-yrky-n

2sg

kytgyntat-yrky-n

req-yrky-n

3sg

kytgyntat-yrky-n

req-yrky-n

 

 

 

1pl

myt-kytgyntat-yrky-n

myt-req-yrky-n

2pll

kytgyntat-yrky-n

req-yrky-n

3pl

kytgyntat-yrky-t

req-yrkyt

Future I: aoristic (telic) future, implies completed action.

Marker: -re-/ra- prefix to stem; -- suffix in 2/3pl forms.

Note use of -g?e/g?a suffix in sg. and 1pl.

 

Singular

Plural

1.

t-ra-kytgyntat-g?a

myt-ra-kytgyntat-g?a

2.

ra-kytgyntat-g?a

ra-kytgyntan-y-tyk

3.

ra-kytgyntat-g?a

ra-kytgyntan-y-t

Likewise: trer?eg?e 'what shall I do?' etc.

Future II: progressive future

 

Singular

Plural

1.

t-ra-kytgyntat-yrkyn

myt-ra-kytgyntat-yrkyn

2.

ra-kytgyntat-yrkyn

ra-kytgyntat-yrkyn-e-tyk

3.

ra-kytgyntat-yrkyn

ra-kytgyntat-yrkyn-e-yt

Likwise: trereqyrkyn 'what shall I be doing?'

Present II: type of stative; often refers to past or present time, without indicating completeness of action. Cf. adjective forms.

 

Singular

Plural

1.

ny-kytgyntat-e-gym

myt-kytgyntan-more

2.

ny-kytgyntat-e-gyt

kytgyntat-tore

3.

ny-kytgyntat-qen

kytgyntat-qena-t

Likewise: ny-req-i-gym 'what am I doing?'

Past II: perfect, resultative meaning. Cooccurs with enmec 'already'.

Same morphology as possessive construction (cf. g-ekke-j-gym 'I have a son').

 

Singular

Plural

1.

ga-kytgyntat-e-gym

ga-kytgyntan-more

2.

ga-kytgyntat-e-gyt

ga-kytgyntat-tore

3.

ga-kytgyntat-len

ga-kytgyntat-lena-t

Likewise: ge-req-i-gym 'what have I done?'

Present II is formed from an original participial form. Cf. English 'I am running').

Past II is formed from construction translating 'have'. Cf. English 'I have run'.

Examples

Past I

(1)

ty-gje-kw?e-k (> ty-gjew-g?e-k) ergyr?ok, t-ilgyte-kw?ek,

 

I-woke-up at-dawn, washed,

 

ty-caipa-kw?a-k ynk?am merynre ty-nto-g?a-k argynogty

 

drank-tea and slowly went-out outside

(2)

r?e-g?i gymnin qoray

 

What-happened/did my deer

 

'What did my reindeer do?'

Present I

(3)

gyt ilgytew-yrkyn

 

you washing

 

'Are you washing?'

(4)

req-yrkyn-ym igirqej gynin ekyk

 

what-doing-EMPH just-now your son

 

'What is your son doing just now?'

Future I

(5)

qutti tyletumgyt petle re-jen-yt (re-jet-yt).

 

other fellow-travellers soon will-arrive

 

'The other fellow travellers will soon arrive'

(6)

gyt-ym re-r?e-g?i elwyl?yk yppylomaci

 

you-EMPH what-will-do in-the-herd, being-small

 

'What will someone as small as you do in the herd?'

Future II

(7)

egyttagnepy ytlygyk reen alwyl?ety t-re-lqlkyt-yrkyn

 

from-now father with to-herd I-shall-go

 

'From now on I shall go to the herd with father'

(8)

re-req-yrkyni-yt ?aacekyt enpyl?yke

 

What-will-do youths without-elders

 

'What will the young people do without the elders?'

Present II

(9)

ajwe gyt qonpy ny-gyntew-i-gyt gymykajpy ynk?am n-atc-e-gyt

 

yesterday you all-time were running away from-me and hiding

 

'Yesterday you spent the whole day running away from me and hiding'

(10)

qoray watapa n-ewii-kin

 

Reindeer moss feeds-on

 

'The reindeer feeds on moss'

(11)

an ny-req-i-gym qonpy utku

 

so what-I-do all-time here

 

'So what do I do here all the time?'

(12)

?amyn-ym ny-r?e-qin qonpy gynin ekwew

 

well-EMPH what-happens all-time (to) your left-deer

 

'Well, what happens all the time to your left reindeer?'

Past II

(13)

gyt muryk qametwal?ylqegyt naqam ga-nto-j-gyt

 

you with-us were-supposed-to-eat but you-left

 

'You were supposed to eat with us, but you left'

(14)

ekyk enmec ga-qametwa-len

 

son already has-eaten

 

'The son has already eaten'

(15)

inqej wytku igyr ge-piku-lin

 

boy just now has-jumped

 

'The boy jumped just now'

(16)

torgynan-ym lygi ge-req-i-gym emnuky

 

you-EMPH know what-happened-to-me in-tundra

 

'You (at least) know what happened to me in the tundra'

(17)

gymnan-ym gemo ge-r?e-lin ekyk kaletkorak

 

I-EMPH don't-know what-did (my)-son at-school

 

'I don't know what my son did at school'

(18)

ge-r?e-line-t igyr murgin nenenet

 

What-did today our children

 

'What did our children do today?'

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2.1.2 Imperative

Aorist (perfective, telic completed) and progressive

(imperfective, non-completive) aspects.

al?eqatyk 'to bathe'

Perfective

 

Singular

Plural

1.

m-al?eqat-yk

myn-al?eqat

2.

q-al?eqat-ge

q-al?eqat-gytyk

3.

n-al?eqat-g?an

n-al?eqat-ynat

Imperfective

 

Singular

Plural

1.

m-al?eqat-yrkyn

myn-al?eqat-yrkyn

2.

q-al?eqat-yrkyn

q-al?eqat-yrkynetyk

3.

n-al?eqat-yrkyn

n-al?eqat-yrkynat

Examples: imperative

(19)

qutti ?aacekyt ny-kytgyntat-ynat

 

other youths let-them-run

 

'Let the other youths run.'

(20)

myn-req-yrkyn-ym muri, turi umkyk wama

 

we-should-do-what we, you woods-LOC being

 

'What should we do, while you're in the woods?'

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2.1.3 Conditional

Perfective and imperfective aspects (cf. imperative)

Perfective

 

Singular

Plural

1.

t?-al?eqat-yk

myn?-al?eqat

2.

n?-al?eqat-yn

n?-al?eqat-tyk

3.

n?-al?eqat-g?an

n?-al?eqat-ynat

Imperfective

 

Singular

Plural

1.

t?-al?eqat-yrkyn

myn?-al?eqat-yrkyn

2.

n?-al?eqat-yrkyn

n?-al?eqat-yrkynetyk

3.

n?-al?eqat-yrkyn

n?-al?eqat-yrkynat

Examples: conditional

(21)

ynykit turi n?y-wak?o-tyk enmec n?y-pa?ewyo-tyk

 

if you had-sat-down already you-would-have-rested

 

'If you had sat down already you would have rested'

(22)

n?y-req-yrkyn-i-tyk gym turyk reen atwaka

 

you-would-do-what I you with not-being

 

'What would you do without me?'

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2.2 Transitives

Same mood, T/A system as intransitives. Agreement with both subject and object (excepting reflexive forms) for P/N. Note that forms with 1st person object and 2nd person subject or 3sg subject have special forms which are very nearly identical to those of one of the corresponding antipassive paradigms. (See Spencer 1999, for discussion.)

Past I: l?u- 'see, find'

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

ine-l?u-g?i

ine-l?u-g?i

2sg

ty-l?u-gyt

----------

ne-l?u-gyt

3sg

ty-l?u-g?en

l?u-g?en

l?u-nin

1pl

----------

l?u-tku-g?i

ne-l?u-myk

2pl

ty-l?u-tyk

----------

ne-l?u-tyk

3pl

ty-l?u-net

l?u-net

l?u-nine-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

ine-l?u-tyk

ne-l?u-gym

2sg

myt-l?u-gyt

----------

ne-l?u-gyt

3sg

myt-l?u-g?en

l?u-tky

ne-l?u-g?en

1pl

----------

l?u-tku-tyk

ne-l?u-myk

2pl

myt-l?u-tyk

----------

ne-l?u-tyk

3pl

myt-l?u-net

l?u-tky

l?u-tky

E.g. l?unin 'he saw him'

nel?utyk 'he/they saw you (pl.)'

Likewise: ryreqew- 'to do what to sthg/s.o.?' (combining stem -nreqew).

tynreqewgyt 'what did I do to you?'

ryreqewninet 'what did he do to them?'

Present I

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

ine-l?u-rkyn

ine-l?u-rkyn

2sg

ty-l?u-rkyni-gyt

----------

ne-l?u-rkyni-gyt

3sg

ty-l?u-rkyn

l?u-rkyn

l?u-rkyn-in

1pl

----------

l?u-tku-rkyn

ne-l?u-rkyni-myk

2pl

ty-l?u-rkyni-tyk

----------

ne-l?u-rkyni-tyk

3pl

ty-l?u-rkyn-et

l?u-rkyn-et

l?u-rkynin-et

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

ine-l?u-rkyni-tyk

ne-l?u-rkyni-gym

2sg

myt-l?u-rkyni-gyt

----------

ne-l?u-rkyni-gyt

3sg

myt-l?u-rkyn

l?u-rkyni-tky

ne-l?u-rkyn

1pl

----------

l?u-tku-rkyni-tyk

ne-l?u-rkyni-myk

2pl

myt-l?u-rkyni-tyk

----------

ne-l?u-rkyni-tyk

3pl

myt-l?u-rkyn-et

l?u-rkyni-tky

ne-l?u-rkyn-et

Future I

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

r-ine-l?u-g?e

r-ine-l?u-g?e

2sg

t-re-l?u-gyt

----------

ne-re-l?u-gyt

3sg

t-ry-l?u-yn

re-l?u-yn

re-l?u-g-nin

1pl

----------

re-l?u-tku-g?e

ne-re-l?u-myk

2pl

t-re-l?u-n-tyk

----------

ne-re-l?u-n-tyk

3pl

t-re-l?u-y-net

re-l?u-y-net

re-l?u-g-nine-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

r-ine-l?u-n-tyk

ne-re-l?u-gym

2sg

myt-re-l?u-gyt

----------

ne-re-l?u-gyt

3sg

myt-re-l?u-yn

re-l?u-y-tky

ne-re-l?u-yn

1pl

----------

re-l?u-tku-n-tyk

ne-re-l?u-myk

2pl

myt-re-l?u-n-tyk

----------

ne-re-l?u-n-tyk

3pl

myt-re-l?u-y-net

re-l?u-y-tky

ne-re-l?u-y-net

Future II: = Present I with -re-: t-re-l?u-rkyni-gyt 'I saw thee' etc.

Present II

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

n-ine-l?u-j-gyt

n-ine-l?u-qin

2sg

n-ine-l?u-j-gym

----------

ny-l?u-j-gyt

3sg

n-ine-l?u-j-gym

n-ine-l?u-gyt

n-ine-l?u-qin

1pl

----------

ny-l?u-tku-j-gyt

ny-l?u-muri

2pl

n-ine-l?u-j-gym

----------

ny-l?u-turi

3pl

n-ine-l?u-j-gym

n-ine-l?u-j-gyt

n-ine-l?u-qine-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

n-ine-l?u-turi

ny-l?u-j-gym

2sg

n-ine-l?u-muri

----------

ny-l?u-j-gyt

3sg

n-ine-l?u-muri

n-ine-l?u-turi

ny-l?u-qin

1pl

----------

ny-l?u-tku-turi

ny-l?u-muri

2pl

n-ine-l?u-muri

----------

ny-l?u-turi

3pl

n-ine-l?u-muri

n-ine-l?u-turi

ny-l?u-qine-t

Past II

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

g-ine-l?u-j-gyt

g-ine-l?u-lin

2sg

ge-l?u-j-gyt

----------

ge-l?u-j-gyt

3sg

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-qin

1pl

----------

ge-l?u-tku-j-gyt

ge-l?u-muri

2pl

ge-l?u-turi

----------

ge-l?u-turi

3pl

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

g-ine-l?u-turi

ge-l?u-j-gym

2sg

ge-l?u-j-gyt

----------

ge-l?u-j-gyt

3sg

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-lin

1pl

----------

ge-l?u-tku-turi

ge-l?u-muri

2pl

ge-l?u-turi

----------

ge-l?u-turi

3pl

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

Past II

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

g-ine-l?u-j-gyt

g-ine-l?u-lin

2sg

ge-l?u-j-gyt

----------

ge-l?u-j-gyt

3sg

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-qin

1pl

----------

ge-l?u-tku-j-gyt

ge-l?u-muri

2pl

ge-l?u-turi

----------

ge-l?u-turi

3pl

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

----------

g-ine-l?u-turi

ge-l?u-j-gym

1sg

ge-l?u-j-gyt

----------

ge-l?u-j-gyt

2sg

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-lin

ge-l?u-lin

3sg

----------

ge-l?u-tku-turi

ge-l?u-muri

1pl

ge-l?u-turi

----------

ge-l?u-turi

2pl

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

ge-l?u-line-t

3pl

 

 

 

Examples:

Past I

(23)

ynqory ynpyewqeje qametwanwy n-?ejew-myk

 

then old-woman to-eat she-called-us

 

'Then the old woman called us in to eat'

Present I

(24)

gyt qynwer ytlon ne-jgu-rkyni-gyt jurgytw?itte

 

you however indeed it-is-biting-you mad-dog

 

'A mad dog is just about to bite you.'

Future I

(25)

yrgynan ne-re-l?u-n-tyk ynk?am ne-re-piri-n-tyk

 

they they-will-see-you and they-will-seize-you

 

'They will see you and seize you'

Future II

(26)

ewyr yrgynan ne-re-temju-yrkyni-gyt ?epte qy-temju-yrkyne-t

 

if they they-will-deceive-you also you.IMPER-deceive-them

 

'If they trick you you must trick them'

(Imperative: v. inf.)

Present II

(27)

Gytgak ytlyge ny-nl?eten-muri qolenymety kaletkonwy

 

autumn father he-drives-us to-another-village to-study

 

'In the autumn father drives us to school in another village'

Past II

(28)

mytiw torgynan enmec ga-ntyjewat-ytko-tore

 

we-thought you already you-forgot-us

 

'We thought you'd forgotten us'

Imperative: Perfective

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

q-ine-l?u-gi

n-ine-l?u-g?en

2sg

my-l?u-gyt

----------

?yny-l?u-gyt

3sg

my-l?u-g?en

qy-l?u-gyn

ny-l?u-nin

1pl

----------

qy-l?u-tku-gi

?yny-l?u-myk

2pl

my-l?u-tyk

----------

?yny-l?u-tyk

3pl

my-l?u-net

qy-l?u-gyne-t

ny-l?u-nine-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

----------

q-ine-l?u-tyk

?yny-l?u-gym

1sg

myn-l?u-gyt

----------

?yny-l?u-gyt

2sg

myn-l?u-g?en

qy-l?u-gytky

?yny-l?u-g?en

3sg

----------

qy-l?u-tku-tyk

?yny-l?u-myk

1pl

myn-l?u-tyk

----------

?yny-l?u-tyk

2pl

myn-l?u-net

qy-l?u-gytky

?yny-l?u-net

3pl

 

 

 

Imperfective: Same suffixes as Present I but with Imperative prefixes.

(29)

gymr?am inqegti my-l?u-net

 

now boys let-me-find

 

'Now let me find the boys'

(30)

q-ine-nreqe-kwy-tyk gym ergatyk

 

What-should-you-do to-me tomorrow

 

'What should you do to me tomorrow?'

(31)

naqam-ym ?yny-nreqew-yrkyni-myk ynpynacga

 

but-EMPH what-should-do-with-us old-men

 

'But what should the old men do with us?'

Conditional: Perfective

 

1sg SUBJ

2sg SUBJ

3sg SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

n?-ine-l?u-g?en

n?-ine-l?u-g?en

2sg

t?y-l?u-gyt

----------

nen?y-l?u-gyt

3sg

t?y-l?u-g?en

n?y-l?u-g?en

n?y-l?u-nin

1pl

----------

n?y-l?u-tku-g?en

nen?y-l?u-myk

2pl

t?y-l?u-tyk

----------

nen?y-l?u-tyk

3pl

t?y-l?u-net

n?y-l?u-net

n?y-l?u-nine-t

 

 

 

 

 

1pl SUBJ

2pl SUBJ

3pl SUBJ

OBJ

 

 

 

1sg

----------

n?-ine-l?u-tyk

nen?y-l?u-gym

2sg

myn?-l?u-gyt

----------

nen?y-l?u-gyt

3sg

myn?-l?u-g?en

n?y-l?u-tky

nen?y-l?u-g?en

1pl

----------

n?y-l?u-tku-tyk

nen?y-l?u-myk

2pl

myn?-l?u-tyk

----------

nen?y-l?u-tyk

3pl

myn?-l?u-net

n?y-l?u-tky

nen?y-l?u-net

Conditional Imperfective. Same suffixes as Present I and Imperative Imperfective but with

Conditional prefixes.

(32)

?ytt?e nen?y-jgu-gym ewyr cymce t?y-ta-g?ak

 

dogs would-bite-me if nearer I-would-approach

 

'The dogs would bite me if I were to get closer'

(33)

n?-ine-nreqew-yn ewyr ynan?ytt?yjol t?y-nygje-kwyt

 

What-would-you-do-to-me if before-everone-else I-would-wake-you

 

'What would you do to me if I were to wake you before everyone else?'

(34)

gyt-ym nan?y-walom-yrkyne-gyt ralkotwal?a emmejyqulite

 

you-EMPH they-would-hear-you those-in-bedroom your-loud-voice-by

 

'The people in the sleeping area (of the tent) would hear you because of your loud voice'

 

 

 

Chukchee homepage

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This page created on 11 July 1999.


Last modified 16 July 1999.