CHUKCHEE

CHAPTER 6: FURTHER TRANSITIVITY ALTERNATIONS

1. Lexical alternations - Causatives and other transitivity alternations

2. 'Agreement climbing'

3. Other transitivity alternations with incorporation

3.1 NI feeds 'Dative Shift'

3.2 Transitivization after antipassive or NI

4. Analytical causatives

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1. Lexical alternations - Causatives and other transitivity alternations

Causative - Circumfix: r-... + ew/et/et

Allomorphy:

r = ry before C

 

= n medially

ew/et = w/t after V

ew/et/et = aw/at/at by vowel harmony

Suffix may displace verb forming suffixes already part of stem. Suffix is null in some forms.

Examples:

eret-g?i

'he fell'

r-eren-nin

'he dropped it'

 

 

p?a-g?e

'it dried'

ry-p?a-w-nen

'he dried it'

 

 

cimet-g?i

'it broke'

ry-cime-w-nin

'he broke it'

Common with intransitive stems, also happens with handful of transitives (to produce derived causatives):

l?u-nin

'he saw it'

ry-l?u-en-nin

'he showed it (to s.o.)'

 

 

cicek-w?i

'he understands it'

ry-cicew-en-nin

'he explained it (to s.o.)'

Anticausative: with suffix -t/twa.

pela-nen

'he left it'

pela-t-g?i

'it remained'

 

 

jyme-nen

'he hung it up'

jyme-twa-g?e

'it hung'

Conversion: just change from intr. to tr. conjugation

myle-g?i

'it broke'

myle-nin

'he broke it'

 

 

male-g?e

'he wiped himself dry'

male-nen

'he wiped him dry'

Semantic subtypes of lexical causatives.

'Comitative' meaning.

ragtyk

'to come home'

ry-ragt-at-yk

'to bring home'

 

 

jaalatyk

'to follow'

ry-jaala-w-yk

'to bring s.o. with one'

 

 

tejkewyk

'to struggle'

ry-tejkew-et-yk

'to struggle with s.o.'

 

 

wetgawyk

'to speak'

ry-wetgaw-at-yk

'to converse with s.o.'

Examples:

(1)

ytlyg-yn pykir-g?i jarak

Þ

father-ABS arrived home

(2)

ytlyg-e ry-pkir-en-nin memyl jarak

Þ

father-ERG brought seal home

'Applicative' meaning

migciretyk

'to work'

ry-migcir-ew-yk

'to work sthg.'

 

 

waek

'to do some sewing'

ry-wae-w-yk

'to sew (sthg.)'

 

(3)

ytlyg-yn wiliw-yrkyn otenwelytkorak

Þ

 

 

father-ABS trades in-this-shop

 

 

(4)

ytlyg-e ry-wiliw-et-yrkyn ynnyt

Þ

father-ERG sells fish

'Instrumental' meaning

gatte (>gatga-) 'adze'
gatgatkok 'to make holes in leather'
ry-gatgatko-w-yk 'to use an adze or use sthg. else as an adze'

kelik

'to write'

ry-keli-w-yk

'to write with sthg.'

 

(5)

ytlyg-yn nelyrkyn (qet-agty)

Þ

father-ABS catches (ket-ALL)

(6)

ytlyg-e ry-nel-ew-yrkyn-in gymnin giygi qetagty

 

father-ERG CS-catch-CS-PROG my net-ABS ket-ALL

 

'Father catches ket in/with my net'

(Cf. antipassive. Ket = kind of fish).

'Arousal of emotional state'

qyetyk

'to be jealous'

ry-qye-w-yk

'to be jealous of s.o.'

 

 

wejmenetyk

'to be hospitable'

ry-wejmene-w-yk

'to welcome s.o.'

 

(7)

ekyk gylo-rkyn

son-ABS pines

Þ

(8)

ekk-e ry-glo-w-yrkyn-en ytla

son-ERG pines-for mother-ABS

 

Causative of reflexive verb:

kergypyk

'to put on a kerker'

ry-kergyp-aw-yk

'to put a kerker on s.o.'

ilkymjetyk

'to screw up one's eyes'

r-ilkymje-w-yk

'to close s.o.'s eyes'

ilgytewyk

'to wash (oneself)' or 'to wash s.o.'

kergypyk

'to put on a kerker'

ry-kergyp-aw-yk

'to put a kerker on s.o.'

ilkymjetyk

'to screw up one's eyes'

r-ilkymje-w-yk

'to close s.o.'s eyes'

ilgytewyk

'to wash (oneself)' or 'to wash s.o.'

 

(9)

ytlyg-yn atynwat-g?e

father-ABS hurt.himself

Þ

(10)

ytlyg-e atynwan-nen rekwyt

father hurt the calf

 

'Dative Shift' (almost exclusively with denominal verbs; see also under 'Incorporation').

ranatyk

'to move house'

ry-ranat-aw-yk

'to help move s.o.'s house'

ajkolatyk

'to make a bed'

ajkolatyk

'to make s.o.'s bed'

 

(11)

inqej ajmeer?at-g?e

boy-ABS drew-water

Þ

 (12)

inqej-e ynpynacg-yn r-ajmeer?a-w-nen

 

boy-ERG old-man-ABS drew-water

 

'The boy drew the old man some water.'

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2. 'Agreement climbing'

Agreement of verb taking infinitival complement with embedded transitive verb

(13)

ytlyg-yn paa-g?e marawyk

father stopped scolding

Þ

(14)

ytlyg-e ry-paa-w-nen ry-maraw-at-yk ekek

 

father stopped-TR scolding son-ABS

(15)

ytlyg-e ry-paa-w-nen-at ry-maraw-at-yk ekket

 

father stopped-TR/PL scolding sons-ABS

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3. Other transitivity alternations with incorporation

(See Spencer 1995 and references cited there)

3.1 NI feeds 'Dative Shift'

(16a)

ytlyg-e (akka-gty) qora-e tym-nen

 

father-ERG (son-ALL) deer-ABS killed

 

'Father killed a deer (for the son)

(16b)

ytlyg-yn (akka-gty) qaa-nm-at-g?e

 

father-ABS (son-ALL) deer=killed

 

'Father killed a deer (for the son)

(16c)

ytlyg-e ekyk qaa-nm-y-nen

 

father-ERG son.ABS deer=killed

 

'Father killed a deer (for the son)

Obliques (All., Loc., Abl., Instr.) become derived objects.

(17a)

ynjiw wenwep-yrkyn qapar-ety

 

uncle-ABS follows wolverine-ALL

 

'Uncle follows the wolverine'

(17b)

ynjiw-e wenwep-yrkyn-en qeper

 

uncle-ERG follows wolverine-ABS

 

'Uncle follows the wolverine'

(18a)

inqej gyrulm-yrkyn jara-k

 

boy-ABS skirts-around house-LOC

 

'The boy skirts around the house'

(18b)

inqej-e gyrulm-yrkyn-in jara-y

 

boy-ERG skirts-around house-ABS

 

'The boy skirts the house'

(19a)

ytla laweer?ynto-rkyn korowa-jpy

 

mother-ABS milks cow-ABL

(19b)

ytla-ta laweer?ynto-rkyn-en korowa-lgyn

 

mother-ERG milks cow-ABS

(20a)

ytlon jynat-yrkyn tekicg-e

 

he-ABS asks-for meat-INSTR

(20b)

ynan jynat-yrkyn-en tekicg-yn

 

he-ERG asks-for meat-ABS

[Some of these could be analysed 'in reverse' as zero marked antipassives]

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3.2. Transitivization after antipassive or NI

This gives rise to constructions reminiscent of Locative Alternation verbs in English.

(21a)

ytlyg-e mytqymyt (kawkaw-yk) kili-nin

 

father-ERG butter-ABS (bread-LOC) spread

 

'Father spread butter on the bread'

(21b)

ytlyg-yn mytq-e (kawkaw-yk) ena-rkele-g?e

 

father-ABS butter-INSTR (bread-LOC) AP-spread-INTR

 

'Father spread butter on the bread'

(21c)

ytlyg-e mytq-e kawkaw ena-rkele-nen

 

father-ERG butter-INSTR bread-ABS AP-spread-TR

 

'Father spread the bread with butter'

(21d)

ytlyg-e kawkaw mytqy-rkele-nen

 

father-ERG bread-ABS butter-spread-TR

 

'Father spread the bread with butter'

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4. Analytical causatives

(See also 'analytical constructions' Chapter 8)

Only with human agents. Often means 'order, tell, persuade'.

Verb-jgut rytyk (= 'have' used as Aux. - see Chapter 8)

(22a)

ekyk migciret-g?i

 

son-ABS worked

(22b)

ytlyg-e migciret-yjgut ryn-nin ekyk

 

father-ERG work-CAUS AUX-TR son-ABS

 

'The father made/order the son to work'

(23a)

ekke-te rymigcirewnin waly

 

son-ERG worked knife-ABS

 

'The son worked the knife'

(23b)

ytlyge remigcirew-yjgut ryn-nin waly (akka-gty)

 

father work-CAUS AUX-TR knife-ABS (son-ALL)

 

'The father caused (the son) to work the knife'

Permissive causative ('to let s.o. do') using ityk 'to be' as AUX. Cf.

(24a)

ynpynacg-a cinituwyk rypirkylew-yjgut ryn-nin

 

old-man-ERG self smother-CAUS AUX-TR.

 

'The old mani told (s.o.) to smother himi'

(24b)

ynpynacg-yn rypirkylew-yjgut it-g?i

 

old-man-ABS smother-CAUS AUX-INTR

 

'The old man let (s.o.) smother him'

Expression of the embedded subject ('causee'):

(25a)

ekke-te mimyl pyl-nin

 

son-ERG water-ABS drank

 

'The son drank the water'

(25b)

ytlyg-e akka-gty mimyl ry-lp-y-an-nen

 

father-ERG son-ALL water-ABS R-drank-EN

 

'The father made the son drink the water = gave water to the son to drink.'

(25c)

ytlyg-e akka-gte mimyl pyl-yjgut ryn-nin

 

father-ERG son-ALL water-ABS drink-CAUS AUX-TR

 

'The father told the son to drink the water'

BUT: not possible if Allative could be mistaken for Benefactive:

(26)

ytlyge akka-gty qora-y tym-yjgot ryn-nin

 

'The father had the deer killed (by s.o.) for the son'

The embedded object can be incorporated, in which case the causee may appear as the derived direct object.

 

(27) 

son-ABS water-drink-CAUS AUX-TR

 

'The father gave water to the son to drink'

If Allative could also be interpreted as Benefactive, then verb must be given intransitivizing suffix:

(28)

ytlyge ekyk qaa-nm-at-yjgot rynnin

 

father deer-kill-INTR-CAUS

 

'The father made the son kill the deer'

Contrast:

(29)

ytlyge ekyk qaa-nm-yjgot rynnin

 

father deer-kill-CAUS AUX

 

'The father made (s.o.) kill the deer for the son'

 

 

 

 

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This page created on 11 July 1999.


Last modified 16 July 1999.