LEADERSHIP ELECTION RULES
Scottish National Party
The Labour Party Rule Book 2008
2. Election of leader and deputy leader
A. The leader and deputy leader shall be elected separately in accordance with rule C below, unless rule E below applies.
i. In the case of a vacancy for leader or deputy leader, each nomination must be supported by 12.5 per cent of the Commons members of the PLP. Nominations not attaining this threshold shall be null and void.
ii. Where there is no vacancy, nominations shall be sought each year prior to the annual session of party conference. In this case any nomination must be supported by 20 per cent of the Commons members of the PLP. Nominations not attaining this threshold shall be null and void.
iii. Affiliated organisations, CLPs and Labour Members of the European Parliament may also nominate for each of the offices of leader and deputy leader. All nominees must be Commons members of the PLP.
iv. Nominees shall inform the General Secretary in writing of the acceptance or otherwise of their nomination at least two clear weeks before the commencement of the procedures for voting laid out in rule C below. Unless written consent to nomination is received, nominations shall be rendered null and void.
v. Valid nominations shall be printed in the final agenda for party conference, together with the names of the nominating organisations and Commons members of the PLP supporting the nominations. In the case of a vacancy under E below this information shall be included with the documentation circulated with any ballot.
vi. Nominees who do not attend the relevant party conference shall be deemed to have withdrawn their nominations, unless they send to the secretary – on or before the day on which the conference opens – an explanation in writing of their absence satisfactory to the CAC.
i. Voting in the election of leader and deputy leader shall take place so that the results are declared at an annual session of party conference; except in the case of a vacancy occurring under E below of this rule when the timetable for the ballot shall be as determined by the NEC.
ii. Voting shall take place consecutively in three sections as follows:
a. Section 1 shall consist of Commons members of the PLP and members of the European PLP. Each such member shall be entitled to one vote in each ballot held under this section of the rules.
b. Section 2 shall consist of a vote of all eligible individual members of the party on the basis of one member one vote. This ballot shall take place on a national basis and shall be counted and recorded as an aggregate vote broken down by CLP. Eligible members shall be those currently on the national membership list who are endorsed and have not lapsed from membership.
c. Section 3 shall consist of those members of affiliated organisations who have indicated their support for the Labour Party and that they are not members or supporters of any other party or otherwise ineligible to be members of the Labour Party. Voting shall take place under the procedures of each affiliated organisation, but on a one-person one-vote basis recorded by affiliated organisations and aggregated for a national total. The ballot paper shall provide for the declaration of support and eligibility required under this rule if no prior declaration has been made.
iii. The votes of each nominee in each section shall be calculated as a percentage of the total votes cast in that section and shall then be apportioned as follows:
a. Section 1 (members of the Commons and European PLPs) – one third
b. Section 2 (individual members of the Labour Party) – one third
c. Section 3 (members of affiliated organisations) – one third.
iv. The votes apportioned as provided in iii above shall be totalled and the candidate receiving more than half of the votes so apportioned shall be declared elected. If no candidate reaches this total on the first ballot, further ballots shall be held on an elimination basis. The redistribution of votes shall be according to preferences indicated on the ballot paper.
v. The votes cast for each nominee in each section shall be recorded and published in a form to be determined by the NEC as soon as possible following any election.
D. Timing of an election
i. When the PLP is in opposition in the House of Commons, the election of the leader and deputy leader shall take place at each annual session of party conference.
ii. When the PLP is in government and the leader and/ or deputy leader are prime minister and/ or in Cabinet, an election shall proceed only if requested by a majority of party conference on a card vote.
iii. In any other circumstances an election shall only be held when a vacancy occurs, subject to E below.
E. Procedure in a vacancy
i. When the party is in government and the party leader is prime minister and the party leader, for whatever reason, becomes permanently unavailable, the Cabinet shall, in consultation with the NEC, appoint one of its members to serve as party leader until a ballot under these rules can be carried out.
ii. When the party is in government and the deputy leader becomes party leader under i above of this rule, the Cabinet may, in consultation with the NEC, appoint one of its members to serve as deputy leader until the next party conference. The Cabinet may alternatively, in consultation with the NEC, leave the post vacant until the next party conference.
iii. When the party is in government and the deputy leader, for whatever reason, becomes permanently unavailable, the Cabinet may, in consultation with the NEC, appoint one of its members to serve as deputy leader until the next party conference. The Cabinet may alternatively, in consultation with the NEC, leave the post vacant until the next party conference.
iv. When the party is in opposition and the party leader, for whatever reason, becomes permanently unavailable, the deputy leader shall automatically become party leader on a pro-tem basis. The NEC shall decide whether to hold an immediate ballot as provided under E above or to elect a new leader at the next annual session of party conference.
v. When the party is in opposition and the leader and deputy leader, for whatever reason, both become permanently unavailable, the NEC shall order a postal ballot as provided under E above. In consultation with the Shadow Cabinet they may choose to appoint a member of the Shadow Cabinet to serve as party leader until the outcome of that ballot.
Constitution of the Conservative Party (as amended July 2004)
10. There shall be a Leader of the Party (referred to in this Constitution as “the Leader”) drawn from those elected to Parliament, who shall be elected by the Party Members and Scottish Party Members in accordance with the provisions of Schedule 2.
Rules for the Election of the Leader
1. The Leader shall be elected by the Party Members and Scottish Party Members.
2. A Leader resigning from the Leadership of the Party is not eligible for re-nomination in the consequent Leadership election.
Election of Leader
3. Upon the initiation of an election for the Leader, it shall be the duty of the 1922 Committee to present to the Party, as soon as reasonably practicable, a choice of candidates for election as Leader. The rules for deciding the procedure by which the 1922 Committee selects candidates for submission for election shall be determined by the Executive Committee of the 1922 Committee after consultation of the Board.
4. If there is only one candidate at the time laid down for the close of nominations, that candidate shall be declared Leader of the Party.
5. Only those Party Members and Scottish Party Members who were members of the Party from the time of the call for nominations by the Chairman of the 1922 Committee for the election of the Leader and have been members for at least three months immediately prior to the close of the ballot for the election of the Leader shall be entitled to vote.
6. A candidate achieving more than 50% of the vote among the Party Membership shall be declared elected Leader of the Party.
7. In the event of there being only one valid nomination at the close of nominations prior to the first ballot being held by the Parliamentary Party for the election of the new Leader, the election of the nominee may if so ordered by the Board be ratified by a ballot of the Party Members and Scottish Party Members to be held within one month of the close of nomination.
8. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the rules for the conduct of the ballot or ballots of Party Members and Scottish Party Members shall be agreed by the Board and the Executive Committee of the 1922 Committee.
9. The Chairman of the 1922 Committee, acting on behalf of the Party, shall act as Returning Officer for all stages of the election.
Procedure for the Election of the Leader of the Conservative Party
1. If the position of the Leader of the Party becomes vacant the Chairman of the 1922 Committee shall arrange for an election to begin as soon as practicable.
2. The Chairman of the 1922 Committee will be responsible for the conduct of all ballots specified in these rules and will settle all matters in relation thereto.
3. These rules are drawn up under the authority of the 1922 Committee, and any future changes which may be deemed necessary will be made by the 1922 Committee, as provided for in Schedule 2 of the Constitution of the Conservative Party.
Part 1: VOTE OF CONFIDENCE
4. If a number of Members of the House of Commons, in receipt of the Conservative Whip, amounting to not less than 15% of the members of the Parliamentary Party advise the Chairman of the 1922 Committee in writing, either collectively or separately, that they wish there to be a vote of confidence in the Leader, the Chairman, without disclosing the names of any of the signatories, shall inform the Leader of the Party that a vote of confidence is to be held.
5. The Chairman, after consultation with the Leader, shall determine the actual date of such a vote which shall be held as soon as possible in the circumstances prevailing.
6. If the Leader receives a simple majority of the votes cast in such a ballot, he shall remain as Leader and no further vote of confidence shall be called for a period of at least twelve months from the date of the ballot.
7. If the Leader fails to obtain a majority of the votes cast, he shall resign as Leader of the Party and shall not be permitted to stand in the election which follows.
8. The Chairman of the 1922 Committee, in declaring the result of a ballot in which a leader fails to obtain a majority of the votes cast, shall announce that an election of a new leader will take place according to these rules.
Part 2: PROCEDURE FOR THE SELECTION OF TWO CANDIDATES BY THE PARLIAMENTARY PARTY FOR PRESENTATION TO THE GENERAL MEMBERSHIP OF THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY FOR ELECTION AS LEADER
9. The Chairman of the 1922 Committee, acting on behalf of the Party, shall act as Returning Officer for all stages of the election.
10. The Returning Officer shall call for nominations for the position of Leader of the Party from Members of the House of Commons in receipt of the Conservative Whip.
11. Candidates will be proposed and seconded in writing by Members of the House of Commons in receipt of the Conservative Whip.
12. Each candidate will indicate on the nomination paper that he is prepared to accept nomination, and that he will abide fully by the rules governing the election.
13. The Returning Officer and scrutineers designated by him will receive nominations.
14. The names of the proposer and seconder of each candidate will be published by the Returning Officer.
15. Nominations will close at Noon on a Thursday and the Returning Officer will immediately publish a list of the valid nominations received.
16. If only one valid nomination is received, the Returning Officer shall declare that candidate elected.
17. If two valid nominations are received, the Returning Officer shall declare that these two candidates will go forward for election by the general membership of the Conservative Party.
18. If more than two valid nominations are received, the Returning Officer shall announce that a ballot will be held on the Tuesday immediately following the closing date for nominations.
19. The Returning Officer will prepare a ballot paper listing the names of the candidates and will issue a copy for the purpose of balloting to each Member of the House of Commons in receipt of the Conservative Whip.
20. Each voter will indicate one choice from the candidates listed.
21. Where any Member is unavoidably absent from the House on the day of the ballot for any reason acceptable to the Returning Officer, the Returning Officer shall make appropriate arrangements for the appointment of a proxy.
22. The ballot will be secret and neither the names of those who have voted for a particular candidate nor the names of those who have abstained from voting shall be disclosed by the Returning Officer.
23. The Returning Officer will announce the number of votes received by each candidate.
24. If there are three candidates in the first ballot, then the two candidates who receive the highest number of votes shall go forward to the general membership of the Conservative Party for election.
25. If there are more than three candidates in the first ballot, then the candidate receiving the fewest votes in the ballot shall withdraw and a further ballot will be held on the following Thursday.
26. In the event of two or more candidates equally possessing the least number of votes the ballot shall be re-run. In the event of a further tie for the least votes these candidates shall be eliminated unless doing so resulted in only one candidate remaining, in which case the ballot shall continue to be re-run.
27. Any candidate may withdraw his or her name by advising the Returning Officer to that effect up to 24 hours prior to the opening of the ballot.
28. After the first ballot no new nominations will be accepted and the nominations already made for the candidates proceeding to the second ballot will remain valid.
29. Rules 19-23 & 26 will apply for the second ballot.
30. Any candidate may withdraw his or her name by advising the Returning Officer to that effect no less than 24 hours prior to the opening of this and any subsequent ballot unless by doing so only one nomination remains, in which case withdrawal is not permitted.
31. If there are three candidates in the second ballot, the two candidates who receive the highest number of votes shall go forward to the general membership of the Conservative Party for election
32. If there are more than three candidates in the second ballot, then the candidate receiving the fewest votes shall withdraw and a further ballot will be held on the following Tuesday.
33. This process shall be repeated, with ballots being held on Tuesdays and Thursdays respectively, until a ballot has been held in which only three candidates are eligible to stand.
34. When only three candidates are balloting should a tie occur for the candidates with the least number of votes, the ballot is re-run until the matter is resolved by one candidate being eliminated as having the least votes.
35. Neither of the two candidates to go forward to the general membership may withdraw without the agreement of both the Chairman of the 1922 Committee and the Board of the Party. The candidate remaining would be subject to ratification under Schedule 2, rule 7. In the event of the death of either candidate the ballot of the Parliamentary Party will be reopened and re-run.
Part 3: PROCEDURE FOR THE ELECTION OF LEADER OF THE PARTY BY THE GENERAL MEMBERSHIP OF THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY
36. The two candidates selected by the Parliamentary Party will go forward to a postal ballot of all members of the Conservative Party as defined in Schedule 2, rule 5 of the Party’s Constitution.
37. The Returning Officer shall agree with the Board the closing date for the ballot which shall be as soon as practicable after the date of the last ballot of the Parliamentary Party.
38. The ballot shall be closed at Noon on the date selected and the votes counted thereafter.
39. In the event of both candidates receiving an equal number of votes the matter shall be resolved by re-balloting the membership of the Party.
40. The Returning Officer shall agree with the Board who is responsible, under his direction, for receiving and counting votes in the postal ballot.
41. The Returning Officer will announce the result of the election as soon as practicable to a meeting of the Parliamentary Party and representative members of the Conservative Party, to be called by the Board.
42. The Chairman of the 1922 Committee shall agree with the Board, from time to time, but not less than once in each parliament, a set of appropriate regulations governing the administration, permitted expenditure, methods of communication, election addresses and any other such questions concerning advertising and communicating with and canvassing the electorate as appear to them necessary and desirable.
Part 4: PROCEDURE FOR HUSTINGS DURING THE ELECTION OF LEADER OF THE PARTY
43. It shall be the responsibility of the Board of the Party, in agreement with the Chairman of the 1922 Committee (The Returning Officer), to arrange how best to ensure that members of the Party have an opportunity to meet, listen to and question the final two Leadership Candidates.
44. At the earliest convenient time in the election process, the Board, in agreement with the Chairman of the 1922 Committee, shall discuss with all Leadership Candidates proposals to facilitate and schedule a number of meetings, to be held throughout the country, in order that a plan can be devised before the final stages of the election process commence.
45. The cost of meetings held under the auspices of the Board of the Party shall be divided equally among Candidates, but the cost of the meetings shall not be a charge against the maximum permitted expenditure.
46. Meetings held under the auspices of the Board of the Party shall have priority over all other meetings arranged by any body, organisation or group.
47. In consultation with Conservative Central Office, the Board of the Party will appoint one or more senior members of the Party staff to facilitate and organise meetings throughout the country. The member(s) of staff concerned will also be responsible for liaising with the Leadership Candidates. The member(s) of staff so appointed shall be responsible to the Board of the Party.
These regulations shall be agreed between the Chairman of the 1922 Committee and the Board and put before the 1922 Committee for approval.
The Constitution of the Federal Party (as amended March 2009)
... Any election rules must provide for elections to be by STV and secret ballot.
10.1 The Leader of the Party shall be elected by the members of the Party in accordance with election rules made pursuant to Article 8.4.
10.2 An election for the Leader shall be called upon:
(a) the Leader asking for an election;
(b) the death or incapacity of the Leader;
(c) the Leader ceasing to be a Member of the House of Commons (other than a temporary cessation by reason of a dissolution);
(d) the receipt by the President of the resignation of the Leader or of a declaration of intent to resign upon the election of a new Leader;
(e) a vote of no confidence in the Leader being passed by a majority of all Members of the Parliamentary Party in the House of Commons;
(f) the receipt by the President of a requisition submitted by at least 75 Local Parties (including for this purpose, the Specified Associated Organisation or Organisations representing youth and/or students) following the decision of a quorate general meeting; or
(g) the first anniversary of the preceding general election being reached without an election being called under any of paragraphs (a) through (f), provided that:
(i) the Federal Executive may postpone such an election for no more than one year by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting; and
(ii) this paragraph (g) shall not apply if the Leader is a member of the Government.
10.3 Upon election, the Leader shall hold office until death, incapacity or resignation or the completion of an election called under this Article.
10.4 Upon the calling of an election, the Federal Executive shall publish a timetable for nominations, withdrawals, despatch and receipt of ballot papers and the holding of ballots and shall appoint a disinterested person or body to receive and count the ballot papers.
10.5 Nominations must be of a Member of the Parliamentary Party in the House of Commons, who must be proposed and seconded by other such Members and supported by 200 members in aggregate in not less than 20 Local Parties (including, for this purpose, the Specified Associated Organisations representing youth and students as provided by Article 13.8) and must indicate acceptance of nomination.
UNITED KINGDOM INDEPENDENCE PARTY
8 THE PARTY LEADER
...8.3 A postal ballot of all paid up members of the Party shall elect The Party Leader. The Leader's term of office shall run for four years. This term may be extended by the NEC passing a motion by a two-thirds majority to enable the Leader to stay in post in order to fight a General Election or European Election.
GREEN PARTY OF ENGLAND AND WALES
CONSTITUTION SPRING 2010
8. PARTY LEADER AND DEPUTY LEADER
i) There shall be a Leader and Deputy Leader or Co-Leaders of the Green Party. They shall be voting members of the Executive.
ii) The Leader and Deputy or Co-Leaders will be the primary public faces of the party, responsible for presenting Green Party policy and promoting its electoral activity and campaigns to the public on a daily basis.
iii) Candidates for Leader and Deputy Leader or Co-Leader shall have been a member of the Party for the three complete years preceding the date of close of nominations, and shall be required to complete a standard application form. Nominations of candidates must be supported by the signatures of a minimum of twenty members of the Party.
iv) Two members of opposite sexes may together stand for the office of Leader in order to hold the post as a job share. The post of Deputy Leader may not be held as a job share. In the event of the election of two people job sharing the Leader post, they shall be known as 'Co-Leaders', no election for Deputy Leader shall take place, and the duties, responsibilities and votes of both posts will be held by the Co-Leaders. Members standing to be Co-Leaders may not simultaneously be candidates as individuals for either Leader or Deputy Leader.
v) The Leader and Deputy Leader or Co-Leaders shall be elected every two years. The election shall be by a postal ballot of all members of the Party, voting to close on the Friday evening of the nearest Autumn Conference. The deadline for receipt of ballot papers returned by post may be set up to a week prior to Conference, at the discretion of the ERO. Members will be able to cast their postal ballots at Conference if they wish. A hustings will take place on the Friday of Conference. The vote may be counted and the result announced at Conference at the discretion of the ERO.
vi) The vote for Leader shall be counted first. Candidates for Deputy Leader of the same sex as the newly elected Leader will then be disqualified. In the event of the Leader election being won by two people standing as a job share, they shall be known as 'Co-Leaders' and no count for Deputy Leader shall take place.
vii) Elections for the Leader and Deputy Leader will include the opportunity for each candidate to address members through specific mailings, a party membership newsletter and web based communications. Regional parties will be encouraged to hold hustings.
viii) The Leader and Deputy Leader will be accountable to party committees in the same way as other members of the Executive and will be expected to outline their future plans and work to the Executive and GPRC.
ix) The Leader and Deputy Leader in exercising their duties will at all times abide by Party policy, the PSS and Philosophical Basis.
x) In the event of ten per cent of the membership petitioning the Regional Council to recall the Leader or either or both of two Co-Leaders, a new election for both posts of Leader and Deputy Leader shall be held in which the current postholders shall be eligible to stand. In the event of a similar petition to recall the Deputy Leader, a new election for that post only will be held, in which the current postholder and other members of the same sex as the current postholder shall be eligible to stand, subject to clause 8 (iii) above. The current postholders will retain their -post until the result of that election.
xi) The Leader and Deputy Leader or Co-Leaders will present an Annual Report to Conference alongside other Executive members.
xii) Should the Leader or one of the two Co-Leaders resign there will be a byelection for both Leader and Deputy Leader or both Co-Leaders. Should the Deputy Leader resign, there will be a byelection for Deputy Leader. They shall serve a term lasting as if it were starting at the previous Autumn Conference, or if held after May, lasting as if it were starting at the following Autumn Conference.
xiii) ln the event of the suspension or resignation of the Leader, the Deputy Leader shall have the position of Acting Leader until a new election has taken place. In the event of the suspension or resignation of one of two Co-Leaders, the other Co-Leader shall have the position of Acting Leader until a new election has taken place. In the event of the suspension or resignation of both the Leader and Deputy Leader, or of both of two Co-Leaders, the Chair of GPEx shall have the position of Acting Leader until a new election has taken place.
SCOTTISH NATIONAL PARTY
Constitution of the Scottish National Party
National Office Bearers
(a) The Leader shall be the registered leader of the Party.
(b) If the Leader is a Member of the Scottish Parliament, he or she shall be the leader of the Parliamentary group.
15.6 The following specific provisions shall apply to the position of Depute Leader:
(a) The Depute Leader shall be next in seniority to the Leader.
(b) Should the office of Leader for any reason fall vacant, the Depute Leader shall act as Leader until such time as a new Leader can be elected.
(c) If the Depute Leader is a Member of the Scottish Parliament, he or she shall be the deputy leader of the Parliamentary Group if the Leader is also a Member of the Scottish Parliament but shall be the leader of the Parliamentary Group if the Leader is not also a Member of the Scottish Parliament.
15.7 The following specific provisions shall apply to both the Leader and Depute Leader:
(a) The Leader and Depute Leader shall be elected annually in a vote of all members of the Party conducted in accordance with the Leadership Election Rules.
(b) A candidate for Leader or Depute Leader must have the nominations of at least a hundred members, who must be drawn from at least twenty Branches.
(c) Subject to their agreement, the incumbent Leader and Depute Leader shall automatically be deemed nominated for re-election.
(d) Where only one candidate is nominated for Leader or Depute Leader, it shall not be necessary to hold an election as required by 15.7(a).
2.5 Rules for the Election of National Officers
1.4 The President and the Leader of the Party’s group in the National Assembly shall be elected by postal ballot of the entire membership in accordance with these rules. In the case of these posts, if there is only one nomination, the person nominated shall be elected or re-elected without an election being held.
1.6 The terms of office of the President and the Leader of the Party's Group in the National Assembly shall be two years, and shall be co-terminous. The National Executive shall have the discretion to run the elections in parallel or separately as it deems appropriate.
5.1 In the case of the election of a President or the Leader of the party's group in the National Assembly, the Designated Officer shall organise at least four hustings meetings, on separate dates at least one week between the first and the last, at which all members on the electoral roll may meet and question the candidates. The Designated Officer shall notify all branch and constituency secretaries of the dates of all such meetings, at least one week in advance of the first. The branch and constituency secretaries shall be responsible for passing on this information to all members. The National Executive Committee shall appoint a chair for each of the meetings.
Election- President and the Leader of the party's group in the National Assembly
6.2 No member of the Party's Group in the National Assembly shall be eligible to stand for the post of President of the Party, and in the event that a person elected as President of the Party subsequently becomes a member of the National Assembly, (s)he shall resign as President, and the National Executive Committee shall organise a by-election in accordance with these rules.
6.3 All valid candidates shall have the right to prepare a statement of up to 300 words in Welsh and up to 300 words in English, which shall be issued to members with the ballot papers.
6.4 The Designated Officer shall send to each member of the party whose name appears on the electoral roll the statements prepared by each candidate. Including these statements in, or with, any of the party’s publications which are sent to all members shall be considered to meet the requirements of this rule.
6.5 In the same mailing, there shall also be included a ballot paper, drawn up in accordance with the Rules for Internal Elections, together with a statement of the way in which the ballot papers are to be completed and returned. There shall also be included a pre-addressed envelope for the return of the ballot paper.